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TABLE OF CONTENTS

Table of Contents

As filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on August 1, 2018

Registration No. 333-            


UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549

FORM S-3
REGISTRATION STATEMENT
UNDER
THE SECURITIES ACT OF 1933

OPHTHOTECH CORPORATION
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)

Delaware
(State or other jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)
  20-8185347
(I.R.S. Employer Identification Number)

One Penn Plaza, 35th Floor
New York, NY 10119
(212) 845-8200

(Address, Including Zip Code, and Telephone Number, Including Area Code, of Registrant's Principal Executive Offices)

Glenn P. Sblendorio
Chief Executive Officer and President
Ophthotech Corporation
One Penn Plaza, 35th Floor
New York, NY 10119
(212) 845-8200

(Name, Address, Including Zip Code, and Telephone Number, Including Area Code, of Agent for Service)

Copies to:

 

 

 
Brian A. Johnson, Esq.
Wilmer Cutler Pickering Hale and Dorr LLP
7 World Trade Center
250 Greenwich Street
New York, New York 10007
Telephone: (212) 230-8800
Fax: (212) 230-8888
  Todd D.C. Anderman, Esq.
Vice President, General Counsel & Corporate Secretary
Ophthotech Corporation
One Penn Plaza, 35th Floor
New York, NY 10119
(212) 845-8200

Approximate date of commencement of proposed sale to the public:
From time to time after this registration statement becomes effective.

            If the only securities being registered on this Form are being offered pursuant to dividend or interest reinvestment plans, please check the following box.    o

            If any of the securities being registered on this Form are to be offered on a delayed or continuous basis pursuant to Rule 415 under the Securities Act of 1933, other than securities offered only in connection with dividend or interest reinvestment plans, check the following box.    ý

            If this Form is filed to register additional securities for an offering pursuant to Rule 462(b) under the Securities Act, please check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering.    o

            If this Form is a post-effective amendment filed pursuant to Rule 462(c) under the Securities Act, check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering.    o

            If this Form is a registration statement pursuant to General Instruction I.D. or a post-effective amendment thereto that shall become effective upon filing with the Commission pursuant to Rule 462(e) under the Securities Act, check the following box.    o

            If this Form is a post-effective amendment to a registration statement filed pursuant to General Instruction I.D. filed to register additional securities or additional classes of securities pursuant to Rule 413(b) under the Securities Act, check the following box.    o

            Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of "large accelerated filer," "accelerated filer," "smaller reporting company," and "emerging growth company" in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.

Large accelerated filer o   Accelerated filer ý   Non-accelerated filer o
(Do not check if a
smaller reporting company)
  Smaller reporting company o

Emerging growth company o

            If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 7(a)(2)(B) of the Securities Act. o

CALCULATION OF REGISTRATION FEE

               
 
Title of Each Class of Securities
to be Registered

  Amount to be
Registered(1)

  Proposed Maximum
Offering Price Per
Unit(1)

  Proposed Maximum
Aggregate Offering
Price(1)

  Amount of
Registration Fee

 

Debt Securities

               
 

Common Stock, par value $0.001 per share

               
 

Preferred Stock, par value $0.001 per share

               
 

Depositary Shares(2)

               
 

Units

               
 

Warrants

               
 

Total

          $150,000,000   $18,675

 

(1)
Pursuant to Form S-3 General Instruction II.D information is not required to be included. An indeterminate amount of the securities of each identified class is being registered as may from time to time be offered hereunder at indeterminate prices, along with an indeterminate number of securities that may be issued upon exercise, settlement, exchange or conversion of securities offered or sold hereunder or that are represented by depositary shares as shall have an aggregate initial offering price not to exceed $150,000,000. Pursuant to Rule 416 under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the "Securities Act"), this registration statement also covers any additional securities that may be offered or issued in connection with any stock split, stock dividend or pursuant to anti-dilution provisions of any of the securities. Separate consideration may or may not be received for securities that are issuable upon conversion, exercise or exchange of other securities. In addition, the total amount to be registered and the proposed maximum aggregate offering price are estimated solely for the purpose of calculating the registration fee pursuant to Rule 457(o) under the Securities Act.

(2)
Each depositary share will be issued under a deposit agreement, will represent an interest in a fractional share or multiple shares of preferred stock and will be evidenced by a depositary receipt.



            The Registrant hereby amends this Registration Statement on such date or dates as may be necessary to delay its effective date until the Registrant shall file a further amendment which specifically states that this Registration Statement shall thereafter become effective in accordance with Section 8(a) of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or until this Registration Statement shall become effective on such date as the Securities and Exchange Commission, acting pursuant to said Section 8(a), may determine.

   


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EXPLANATORY NOTE

        This registration statement contains two prospectuses:

        The base prospectus immediately follows this explanatory note. The specific terms of any securities to be offered pursuant to the base prospectus will be specified in a prospectus supplement to the base prospectus. The sales agreement prospectus immediately follows the base prospectus. The common stock that may be offered, issued and sold by the Registrant under the sales agreement prospectus is included in the $150,000,000 of securities that may be offered, issued and sold by the Registrant under the base prospectus.


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The information in this prospectus is not complete and may be changed. We may not sell these securities until the registration statement filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission is effective. This prospectus is not an offer to sell these securities and we are not soliciting offers to buy these securities in any jurisdiction where the offer or sale is not permitted.

Subject to completion, dated August 1, 2018

$150,000,000

PROSPECTUS

Ophthotech Corporation

Debt Securities
Common Stock
Preferred Stock
Depositary Shares
Units
Warrants

        We may offer and sell securities from time to time in one or more offerings of up to $150,000,000 in aggregate offering price. This prospectus describes the general terms of these securities and the general manner in which these securities will be offered. We will provide the specific terms of these securities in supplements to this prospectus. The prospectus supplements will also describe the specific manner in which these securities will be offered and may also supplement, update or amend information contained in this document. You should read this prospectus and any applicable prospectus supplement before you invest.

        We may offer these securities in amounts, at prices and on terms determined at the time of offering. The securities may be sold directly to you, through agents, or through underwriters and dealers. If agents, underwriters or dealers are used to sell the securities, we will name them and describe their compensation in a prospectus supplement.

        Our common stock is listed on The Nasdaq Global Select Market under the symbol "OPHT."

        Investing in these securities involves significant risks. See "Risk Factors" included in any accompanying prospectus supplement and in the documents incorporated by reference in this prospectus for a discussion of the factors you should carefully consider before deciding to purchase these securities.

        Neither the Securities and Exchange Commission nor any state securities commission has approved or disapproved of these securities or passed upon the adequacy or accuracy of this prospectus. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.

   

The date of this prospectus is                        , 2018


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TABLE OF CONTENTS

ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS

    1  

RISK FACTORS

   
2
 

WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION

   
3
 

INCORPORATION BY REFERENCE

   
3
 

FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

   
4
 

OPHTHOTECH CORPORATION

   
5
 

RATIO OF EARNINGS TO FIXED CHARGES

   
6
 

USE OF PROCEEDS

   
7
 

DESCRIPTION OF DEBT SECURITIES

   
8
 

DESCRIPTION OF CAPITAL STOCK

   
18
 

DESCRIPTION OF DEPOSITARY SHARES

   
26
 

DESCRIPTION OF UNITS

   
29
 

DESCRIPTION OF WARRANTS

   
30
 

FORMS OF SECURITIES

   
31
 

PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION

   
33
 

LEGAL MATTERS

   
36
 

EXPERTS

   
36
 

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ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS

        This prospectus is part of a registration statement that we filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission, which we refer to as the SEC, utilizing a "shelf" registration process. Under this shelf registration process, we may from time to time sell any combination of the securities described in this prospectus in one or more offerings for an aggregate initial offering price of up to $150,000,000.

        This prospectus provides you with a general description of the securities we may offer. Each time we sell securities, we will provide one or more prospectus supplements that will contain specific information about the terms of the offering. The prospectus supplement may also add, update or change information contained in this prospectus. You should read both this prospectus and the accompanying prospectus supplement together with the additional information described under the heading "Where You Can Find More Information" beginning on page 3 of this prospectus.

        You should rely only on the information contained in or incorporated by reference in this prospectus, any accompanying prospectus supplement or in any related free writing prospectus filed by us with the SEC. We have not authorized anyone to provide you with different information. This prospectus and any accompanying prospectus supplement do not constitute an offer to sell or the solicitation of an offer to buy any securities other than the securities described in this prospectus or such accompanying prospectus supplement or an offer to sell or the solicitation of an offer to buy such securities in any circumstances in which such offer or solicitation is unlawful. You should assume that the information appearing in this prospectus, any prospectus supplement, the documents incorporated by reference and any related free writing prospectus is accurate only as of their respective dates. Our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects may have changed materially since those dates.

        Unless the context otherwise indicates, references in this prospectus to "Ophthotech," "we," "our," "us" and "the Company" refer, collectively, to Ophthotech Corporation, a Delaware corporation, and its consolidated subsidiaries.

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RISK FACTORS

        Investing in our securities involves significant risks. You should carefully consider the risks and uncertainties described in this prospectus and any accompanying prospectus supplement, including the risk factors set forth in our filings with the SEC that are incorporated by reference herein, before making an investment decision pursuant to this prospectus and any accompanying prospectus supplement relating to a specific offering.

        Our business, financial condition and results of operations could be materially and adversely affected by any or all of these risks or by additional risks and uncertainties not presently known to us or that we currently deem immaterial that may adversely affect us in the future.

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WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION

        We file annual, quarterly and current reports, proxy statements and other information with the SEC. Our SEC filings are available to the public over the Internet at the SEC's website at http://www.sec.gov. Copies of certain information filed by us with the SEC are also available on our website at http://www.ophthotech.com. Our website is not a part of this prospectus and is not incorporated by reference in this prospectus. You may also read and copy any document we file at the SEC's Public Reference Room, 100 F Street, N.E., Washington, D.C. 20549. Please call the SEC at 1-800-SEC-0330 for further information on the operation of the Public Reference Room.

        This prospectus is part of a registration statement we filed with the SEC. This prospectus omits some information contained in the registration statement in accordance with SEC rules and regulations. You should review the information and exhibits in the registration statement for further information about us and the securities we are offering. Statements in this prospectus concerning any document we filed as an exhibit to the registration statement or that we otherwise filed with the SEC are not intended to be comprehensive and are qualified by reference to these filings. You should review the complete document to evaluate these statements. You can obtain a copy of the registration statement from the SEC at the address listed above or from the SEC's website.


INCORPORATION BY REFERENCE

        The SEC allows us to incorporate by reference much of the information we file with the SEC, which means that we can disclose important information to you by referring you to those publicly available documents. The information that we incorporate by reference in this prospectus is considered to be part of this prospectus. Because we are incorporating by reference future filings with the SEC, this prospectus is continually updated and those future filings may modify or supersede some of the information included or incorporated in this prospectus. This means that you must look at all of the SEC filings that we incorporate by reference to determine if any of the statements in this prospectus or in any document previously incorporated by reference have been modified or superseded. This prospectus incorporates by reference the documents listed below (File No. 001-36080) and any future filings we make with the SEC under Sections 13(a), 13(c), 14 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act (in each case, other than those documents or the portions of those documents not deemed to be filed) between the date of the initial registration statement and the effectiveness of the registration statement and following the effectiveness of the registration statement until the offering of the securities under the registration statement is terminated or completed:

        You may request a copy of these filings, at no cost, by writing or telephoning us at the following address or telephone number:

Ophthotech Corporation
One Penn Plaza, 35th Floor
New York, NY 10119
(212) 845-8200

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FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

        This prospectus and the information incorporated by reference in this prospectus include "forward-looking statements" within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Act, and Section 21E of the Exchange Act. All statements, other than statements of historical facts, contained or incorporated by reference in this prospectus, including statements regarding our strategy, future operations, future financial position, future revenues, projected costs, prospects, plans and objectives of management, are forward-looking statements. The words "anticipate," "believe," "goals," "estimate," "expect," "intend," "may," "might," "plan," "predict," "project," "target," "potential," "will," "would," "could," "should," "continue" and similar expressions are intended to identify forward-looking statements, although not all forward-looking statements contain these identifying words. In addition, any statements that refer to the potential benefits of our business plan and strategy to develop Zimura® (avacincaptad pegol) in age-related retinal diseases or autosomal recessive Stargardt disease and our gene therapy product candidate for rhodopsin-mediated autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa and to potentially expand our product pipeline, including through collaborative gene therapy research programs; our ability to in-license or acquire additional products, product candidates or technologies to treat ophthalmic diseases and the timing, costs, conduct and outcome of preclinical development or clinical trials we undertake for these newly acquired assets; our expectations related to our use of available cash; our estimates regarding expenses, future revenues, capital requirements and needs for, and ability to obtain, additional financing; the timing, costs, conduct and outcome of our ongoing and planned clinical trials, including statements regarding the timing of the initiation of and completion of enrollment in such trials, and the costs to obtain and timing of receipt of initial results from, and the completion of, such trials; the timing of and our ability to obtain marketing approval of our product candidates, and the ability of our product candidates to meet existing or future regulatory standards; the potential advantages of our product candidates; the rate and degree of potential market acceptance and clinical utility of our product candidates, if approved; our estimates regarding the potential market opportunity for our product candidates; the potential receipt of revenue from potential future collaborations; the potential receipt of revenues from future sales of our product candidates, if approved; our sales, marketing and distribution capabilities and strategy; our ability to establish and maintain arrangements for the manufacture of our product candidates; our intellectual property position; the impact of existing and new governmental laws and regulations; and our competitive position are forward-looking statements.

        We may not actually achieve the plans, intentions or expectations disclosed in our forward-looking statements, and you should not place undue reliance on our forward-looking statements. Actual results or events could differ materially from the plans, intentions and expectations disclosed in the forward-looking statements we make. See the "Risk Factors" section of this prospectus for more information. Our forward-looking statements do not reflect the potential impact of any future acquisitions, mergers, dispositions, joint ventures or investments we may make. We do not assume any obligation to update any forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise, except as required by law.

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OPHTHOTECH CORPORATION

        We are a science-driven biopharmaceutical company specializing in the development of novel therapies to treat ophthalmic diseases, with a focus on age-related and orphan retinal diseases. Our multi-track strategy is to leverage our clinical experience and retina expertise to develop therapies for large market, age-related retinal diseases, where unmet medical needs remain for these patients, and for orphan eye diseases with a focus on underserved patients, and to utilize a disciplined business development approach to obtain additional products, product candidates and technologies in these disease areas. We believe that there are advantages to pursuing drug development for orphan indications, including the potential for regulatory exclusivity, the potential for clinical trials with smaller sample sizes and the potential for accelerated development timelines. Our team has significant ophthalmic drug development experience and deep relationships with global ophthalmology thought leaders. We have an extensive network of ophthalmic clinical trial sites, having worked with over 250 sites worldwide. We believe that the combination of these factors, together with our experience in designing and executing IND-enabling studies and clinical trials for eye diseases, and specifically back of the eye diseases, provide us a competitive advantage.

        Our principal executive offices are located at One Penn Plaza, 35th Floor, New York, NY 10119, and our telephone number is (212) 845-8200.

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RATIO OF EARNINGS TO FIXED CHARGES

        The following table sets forth our ratio of earnings to fixed charges for each of the periods indicated. You should read this table in conjunction with the financial statements and notes incorporated by reference in this prospectus.

 
  Six
Months
Ended
  Fiscal Year Ended  
 
  June 30,
2018
  December 31,
2017
  December 31,
2016
  December 31,
2015
  December 31,
2014
  December 31,
2013
 

Ratio of earnings to fixed charges

    N/A     91.7     N/A     N/A     N/A     N/A  

For purposes of calculating the ratios above, earnings consist of net income (loss) from continuing operations before taxes, plus fixed charges. Fixed charges include interest expense and the interest portion of rent expense which is deemed to be representative of the interest factor.

We did not record earnings for the six months ended June 30, 2018 or for the years ended December 31, 2016, 2015, 2014 and 2013. Accordingly, our earnings were insufficient to cover fixed charges for such periods and we are unable to disclose a ratio of earnings to fixed charges for such periods. The dollar amount of the deficiency in earnings available for fixed charges for the six months ended June 30, 2018 and for the years ended December 31, 2016, 2015, 2014 and 2013 was $27.1 million, $193.8 million, $122.5 million, $80.3 million, and $51.1 million, respectively.

Our ratios of earnings to combined fixed charges and preferred stock dividends for each of the periods indicated above are the same as our ratios of earnings to fixed charges set forth above.

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USE OF PROCEEDS

        We intend to use the net proceeds from the sale of any securities offered under this prospectus for general corporate purposes unless otherwise indicated in the applicable prospectus supplement. General corporate purposes may include research and development costs, the acquisition or in-license of other products, product candidates, businesses or technologies, repayment and refinancing of debt, working capital and capital expenditures. We may temporarily invest the net proceeds in a variety of capital preservation instruments, including short-term, investment grade, interest bearing instruments and U.S. government securities, until they are used for their stated purpose. We have not determined the amount of net proceeds to be used specifically for such purposes. As a result, management will retain broad discretion over the allocation of net proceeds.

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DESCRIPTION OF DEBT SECURITIES

        We may offer debt securities, which may be senior or subordinated. We refer to the senior debt securities and the subordinated debt securities collectively as debt securities. The following description summarizes the general terms and provisions of the debt securities. We will describe the specific terms of the debt securities and the extent, if any, to which the general provisions summarized below apply to any series of debt securities in the prospectus supplement relating to the series and any applicable free writing prospectus that we authorize to be delivered. When we refer to "the Company," "we," "our," and "us" in this section, we mean Ophthotech Corporation excluding, unless the context otherwise requires or as otherwise expressly stated, our subsidiaries.

        We may issue senior debt securities from time to time, in one or more series under a senior indenture to be entered into between us and a senior trustee to be named in a prospectus supplement, which we refer to as the senior trustee. We may issue subordinated debt securities from time to time, in one or more series under a subordinated indenture to be entered into between us and a subordinated trustee to be named in a prospectus supplement, which we refer to as the subordinated trustee. The forms of senior indenture and subordinated indenture are filed as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus forms a part. The senior indenture and the subordinated indenture are referred to individually as an indenture and together as the indentures, and the senior trustee and the subordinated trustee are referred to individually as a trustee and together as the trustees. This section summarizes some of the provisions of the indentures and is qualified in its entirety by the specific text of the indentures, including definitions of terms used in the indentures. Wherever we refer to particular sections of, or defined terms in, the indentures, those sections or defined terms are incorporated by reference in this prospectus or the applicable prospectus supplement. You should review the indentures that are filed as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus forms a part for additional information.

        Neither indenture will limit the amount of debt securities that we may issue. The applicable indenture will provide that debt securities may be issued up to an aggregate principal amount authorized from time to time by us and may be payable in any currency or currency unit designated by us or in amounts determined by reference to an index.

General

        The senior debt securities will constitute our unsecured and unsubordinated general obligations and will rank equally in right of payment with our other unsecured and unsubordinated obligations. The subordinated debt securities will constitute our unsecured and subordinated general obligations and will be junior in right of payment to our senior indebtedness (including senior debt securities), as described under the heading "—Certain Terms of the Subordinated Debt Securities—Subordination." The debt securities will be structurally subordinated to all existing and future indebtedness and other liabilities of our subsidiaries unless such subsidiaries expressly guarantee such debt securities.

        The debt securities will be our unsecured obligations. Any secured debt or other secured obligations will be effectively senior to the debt securities to the extent of the value of the assets securing such debt or other obligations.

        The applicable prospectus supplement and any free writing prospectus will include any additional or different terms of the debt securities of any series being offered, including the following terms:

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        When we refer to "principal" in this section with reference to the debt securities, we are also referring to "premium, if any."

        We may from time to time, without notice to or the consent of the holders of any series of debt securities, create and issue further debt securities of any such series ranking equally with the debt securities of such series in all respects (or in all respects other than (1) the payment of interest accruing prior to the issue date of such further debt securities or (2) the first payment of interest following the issue date of such further debt securities). Such further debt securities may be consolidated and form a single series with the debt securities of such series and have the same terms as to status, redemption or otherwise as the debt securities of such series.

        You may present debt securities for exchange and you may present debt securities for transfer in the manner, at the places and subject to the restrictions set forth in the debt securities and the applicable prospectus supplement. We will provide you those services without charge, although you may have to pay any tax or other governmental charge payable in connection with any exchange or transfer, as set forth in the indenture.

        Debt securities may bear interest at a fixed rate or a floating rate. Debt securities bearing no interest or interest at a rate that at the time of issuance is below the prevailing market rate (original issue discount securities) may be sold at a discount below their stated principal amount. U.S. federal

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income tax considerations applicable to any such discounted debt securities or to certain debt securities issued at par which are treated as having been issued at a discount for U.S. federal income tax purposes will be described in the applicable prospectus supplement.

        We may issue debt securities with the principal amount payable on any principal payment date, or the amount of interest payable on any interest payment date, to be determined by reference to one or more currency exchange rates, securities or baskets of securities, commodity prices or indices. You may receive a payment of principal on any principal payment date, or a payment of interest on any interest payment date, that is greater than or less than the amount of principal or interest otherwise payable on such dates, depending on the value on such dates of the applicable currency, security or basket of securities, commodity or index. Information as to the methods for determining the amount of principal or interest payable on any date, the currencies, securities or baskets of securities, commodities or indices to which the amount payable on such date is linked and certain related tax considerations will be set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement.

Certain Terms of the Senior Debt Securities

        Covenants.    Unless we indicate otherwise in a prospectus supplement with respect to a particular series of senior debt securities, the senior debt securities will not contain any financial or restrictive covenants, including covenants restricting either us or any of our subsidiaries from incurring, issuing, assuming or guaranteeing any indebtedness secured by a lien on any of our or our subsidiaries' property or capital stock, or restricting either us or any of our subsidiaries from entering into sale and leaseback transactions.

        Consolidation, Merger and Sale of Assets.    Unless we indicate otherwise in a prospectus supplement with respect to a particular series of senior debt securities, we may not consolidate with or merge into any other person, in a transaction in which we are not the surviving corporation, or convey, transfer or lease our properties and assets substantially as an entirety to any person, in either case, unless:

The restrictions described in the bullets above do not apply (1) to our consolidation with or merging into one of our affiliates, if our board of directors determines in good faith that the purpose of the consolidation or merger is principally to change our state of incorporation or our form of organization to another form or (2) if we merge with or into a single direct or indirect wholly-owned subsidiary of ours.

The surviving business entity will succeed to, and be substituted for, us under the senior indenture and the senior debt securities and, except in the case of a lease, we shall be released from all obligations under the senior indenture and the senior debt securities.

        No Protection in the Event of a Change in Control.    Unless we indicate otherwise in a prospectus supplement with respect to a particular series of senior debt securities, the senior debt securities will not contain any provisions that may afford holders of the senior debt securities protection in the event

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we have a change in control or in the event of a highly leveraged transaction (whether or not such transaction results in a change in control).

        Events of Default.    Unless we indicate otherwise in a prospectus supplement with respect to a particular series of senior debt securities, the following are events of default under the senior indenture with respect to senior debt securities of each series:

        The default by us under any other debt, including any other series of debt securities, is not a default under the senior indenture.

        If an event of default other than an event of default specified in the fourth bullet point above occurs with respect to a series of senior debt securities and is continuing under the senior indenture, then, and in each such case, either the trustee or the holders of not less than 25% in aggregate principal amount of such series then outstanding under the senior indenture (each such series voting as a separate class) by written notice to us and to the trustee, if such notice is given by the holders, may, and the trustee at the request of such holders shall, declare the principal amount of and accrued interest on such series of senior debt securities to be immediately due and payable, and upon this declaration, the same shall become immediately due and payable.

        If an event of default specified in the fourth bullet point above occurs and is continuing, the entire principal amount of and accrued interest on each series of senior debt securities then outstanding shall automatically become immediately due and payable.

        Unless otherwise specified in the prospectus supplement relating to a series of senior debt securities originally issued at a discount, the amount due upon acceleration shall include only the original issue price of the senior debt securities, the amount of original issue discount accrued to the date of acceleration and accrued interest, if any.

        Upon certain conditions, declarations of acceleration may be rescinded and annulled and past defaults may be waived by the holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of all the senior debt securities of such series affected by the default, each series voting as a separate class. Furthermore, subject to various provisions in the senior indenture, the holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of a series of senior debt securities, by notice to the trustee, may waive a continuing default or event of default with respect to such senior debt securities and its consequences, except a default in the payment of principal of or interest on such senior debt securities (other than any such default in payment resulting solely from an acceleration of the senior debt securities) or in respect of a covenant or provision of the senior indenture which cannot be modified or amended

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without the consent of the holders of each such senior debt security. Upon any such waiver, such default shall cease to exist, and any event of default with respect to such senior debt securities shall be deemed to have been cured, for every purpose of the senior indenture; but no such waiver shall extend to any subsequent or other default or event of default or impair any right consequent thereto.

        The holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of a series of senior debt securities may direct the time, method and place of conducting any proceeding for any remedy available to the trustee or exercising any trust or power conferred on the trustee with respect to such senior debt securities. However, the trustee may refuse to follow any direction that conflicts with law or the senior indenture, that may involve the trustee in personal liability or that the trustee determines in good faith may be unduly prejudicial to the rights of holders of such series of senior debt securities not joining in the giving of such direction and may take any other action it deems proper that is not inconsistent with any such direction received from holders of such series of senior debt securities. A holder may not pursue any remedy with respect to the senior indenture or any series of senior debt securities unless:

        These limitations, however, do not apply to the right of any holder of a senior debt security of any affected series to receive payment of the principal of and interest on such senior debt security in accordance with the terms of such debt security, or to bring suit for the enforcement of any such payment in accordance with the terms of such debt security, on or after the due date for the senior debt securities, which right shall not be impaired or affected without the consent of the holder.

        The senior indenture requires certain of our officers to certify, on or before a fixed date in each year in which any senior debt security is outstanding, as to their knowledge of our compliance with all covenants, agreements and conditions under the senior indenture.

        Satisfaction and Discharge.    We can satisfy and discharge our obligations to holders of any series of debt securities if:

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and if, in any such case, we also pay or cause to be paid all other sums payable under the senior indenture, as and when the same shall be due and payable and we deliver to the senior trustee an officer's certificate and an opinion of counsel, each stating that these conditions have been satisfied.

        Under current U.S. federal income tax law, the deposit and our legal release from the debt securities would be treated as though we took back your debt securities and gave you your share of the cash and debt securities or bonds deposited in trust. In that event, you could recognize gain or loss on the debt securities you give back to us. Purchasers of the debt securities should consult their own advisers with respect to the tax consequences to them of such deposit and discharge, including the applicability and effect of tax laws other than the U.S. federal income tax law.

        Defeasance.    Unless the applicable prospectus supplement provides otherwise, the following discussion of legal defeasance and covenant defeasance will apply to any series of debt securities issued under the indentures.

        Legal Defeasance.    We can legally release ourselves from any payment or other obligations on the debt securities of any series (called "legal defeasance") if certain conditions are met, including the following:

        If we accomplish legal defeasance, as described above, you would have to rely solely on the trust deposit for repayment of the debt securities. You could not look to us for repayment in the event of any shortfall.

        Covenant Defeasance.    Without any change in current U.S. federal tax law, we can make the same type of deposit described above and be released from some of the covenants in the debt securities (called "covenant defeasance"). In that event, you would lose the protection of those covenants but would gain the protection of having money and securities set aside in trust to repay the debt securities. In order to achieve covenant defeasance, we must do the following (among other things):

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        If we accomplish covenant defeasance, you could still look to us for repayment of the debt securities if there were a shortfall in the trust deposit. In fact, if one of the events of default occurred (such as our bankruptcy) and the debt securities become immediately due and payable, there may be such a shortfall. Depending on the events causing the default, you may not be able to obtain payment of the shortfall.

        Modification and Waiver.    We and the trustee may amend or supplement the senior indenture or the senior debt securities of any series without the consent of any holder:

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        Other amendments and modifications of the senior indenture or the senior debt securities issued may be made, and our compliance with any provision of the senior indenture with respect to any series of senior debt securities may be waived, with the consent of the holders of a majority of the aggregate principal amount of the outstanding senior debt securities of each series affected by the amendment or modification (voting as separate series); provided, however, that each affected holder must consent to any modification, amendment or waiver that:

        It shall not be necessary for the holders to approve the particular form of any proposed amendment, supplement or waiver, but it shall be sufficient if the holders' consent approves the substance thereof. After an amendment, supplement or waiver of the senior indenture in accordance with the provisions described in this section becomes effective, the trustee must give to the holders affected thereby certain notice briefly describing the amendment, supplement or waiver. Any failure by the trustee to give such notice, or any defect therein, shall not, however, in any way impair or affect the validity of any such amendment, supplemental indenture or waiver.

        No Personal Liability of Incorporators, Stockholders, Officers, Directors.    The senior indenture provides that no recourse shall be had under any obligation, covenant or agreement of ours in the senior indenture or any supplemental indenture, or in any of the senior debt securities or because of the creation of any indebtedness represented thereby, against any of our incorporators, stockholders, officers or directors, past, present or future, or of any predecessor or successor entity thereof under any

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law, statute or constitutional provision or by the enforcement of any assessment or by any legal or equitable proceeding or otherwise. Each holder, by accepting the senior debt securities, waives and releases all such liability.

        Concerning the Trustee.    The senior indenture provides that, except during the continuance of an event of default, the trustee will not be liable except for the performance of such duties as are specifically set forth in the senior indenture. If an event of default has occurred and is continuing, the trustee will exercise such rights and powers vested in it under the senior indenture and will use the same degree of care and skill in its exercise as a prudent person would exercise under the circumstances in the conduct of such person's own affairs.

        The senior indenture and the provisions of the Trust Indenture Act incorporated by reference therein contain limitations on the rights of the trustee thereunder, should it become a creditor of ours or any of our subsidiaries, to obtain payment of claims in certain cases or to realize on certain property received by it in respect of any such claims, as security or otherwise. The trustee is permitted to engage in other transactions, provided that if it acquires any conflicting interest (as defined in the Trust Indenture Act), it must eliminate such conflict or resign.

        We may have normal banking relationships with the senior trustee in the ordinary course of business.

        Unclaimed Funds.    All funds deposited with the trustee or any paying agent for the payment of principal, premium, interest or additional amounts in respect of the senior debt securities that remain unclaimed for two years after the date upon which such amounts became due and payable will be repaid to us. Thereafter, any right of any holder of senior debt securities to such funds shall be enforceable only against us, and the trustee and paying agents will have no liability therefor.

        Governing Law.    The senior indenture and the senior debt securities will be governed by, and construed in accordance with, the internal laws of the State of New York.

Certain Terms of the Subordinated Debt Securities

        Other than the terms of the subordinated indenture and subordinated debt securities relating to subordination or otherwise as described in the prospectus supplement relating to a particular series of subordinated debt securities, the terms of the subordinated indenture and subordinated debt securities are identical in all material respects to the terms of the senior indenture and senior debt securities.

        Additional or different subordination terms may be specified in the prospectus supplement applicable to a particular series.

        Subordination.    The indebtedness evidenced by the subordinated debt securities is subordinate to the prior payment in full of all of our senior indebtedness, as defined in the subordinated indenture. During the continuance beyond any applicable grace period of any default in the payment of principal, premium, interest or any other payment due on any of our senior indebtedness, we may not make any payment of principal of or interest on the subordinated debt securities (except for certain sinking fund payments). In addition, upon any payment or distribution of our assets upon any dissolution, winding-up, liquidation or reorganization, the payment of the principal of and interest on the subordinated debt securities will be subordinated to the extent provided in the subordinated indenture in right of payment to the prior payment in full of all our senior indebtedness. Because of this subordination, if we dissolve or otherwise liquidate, holders of our subordinated debt securities may receive less, ratably, than holders of our senior indebtedness. The subordination provisions do not prevent the occurrence of an event of default under the subordinated indenture.

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        The term "senior indebtedness" of a person means with respect to such person the principal of, premium, if any, interest on, and any other payment due pursuant to any of the following, whether outstanding on the date of the subordinated indenture or incurred by that person in the future:

unless, in the case of any particular indebtedness, renewal, extension or refunding, the instrument creating or evidencing it or the assumption or guarantee relating to it expressly provides that such indebtedness, renewal, extension or refunding is not superior in right of payment to the subordinated debt securities. Our senior debt securities constitute senior indebtedness for purposes of the subordinated indenture.

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DESCRIPTION OF CAPITAL STOCK

        The following description of our capital stock is intended as a summary only and therefore is not a complete description of our capital stock. This description is based upon, and is qualified by reference to, our certificate of incorporation, our by-laws and applicable provisions of Delaware corporate law. You should read our certificate of incorporation and by-laws, which are filed as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus forms a part, for the provisions that are important to you.

        Our authorized capital stock consists of 200,000,000 shares of our common stock, $0.001 par value per share, and 5,000,000 shares of our preferred stock, $0.001 par value per share. As of July 31, 2018, we had issued and outstanding 36,198,436 shares of our common stock, and no shares of preferred stock were outstanding.

Common Stock

        Annual Meeting.    Annual meetings of our stockholders are held on the date designated in accordance with our by-laws. Written notice must be mailed to each stockholder entitled to vote not less than ten nor more than 60 days before the date of the meeting. The presence in person or by proxy of the holders of record of a majority of our issued and outstanding shares entitled to vote at such meeting constitutes a quorum for the transaction of business at meetings of the stockholders. Special meetings of the stockholders may be called for any purpose by only the board of directors, the Chairman of the board of directors or the Chief Executive Officer. Except as may be otherwise provided by applicable law, our certificate of incorporation or our by-laws, all elections of directors shall be decided by a plurality of the votes cast by the stockholders entitled to vote on the election, and all other questions shall be decided by the vote of the holders of shares of stock having a majority in voting power of the votes cast by the holders of all of the shares of stock present or represented at the meeting and voting affirmatively or negatively on such matter at a duly held meeting of stockholders at which a quorum is present.

        Voting Rights.    Each holder of common stock is entitled to one vote for each share held of record on all matters to be voted upon by stockholders.

        Dividends.    Subject to the rights, powers and preferences of any outstanding preferred stock, and except as provided by law or in our certificate of incorporation, dividends may be declared and paid or set aside for payment on the common stock out of legally available assets or funds when and as declared by the board of directors.

        Liquidation and Dissolution.    Subject to the rights, powers and preferences of any outstanding preferred stock, in the event of our liquidation or dissolution, our net assets will be distributed pro rata to the holders of our common stock.

        Other Rights.    Holders of the common stock have no right to:

        The common stock does not have cumulative voting rights. Holders of shares of the common stock are not required to make additional capital contributions.

        Transfer Agent and Registrar.    Computershare Trust Company, N.A. is transfer agent and registrar for the common stock.

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Preferred Stock

        We are authorized to issue "blank check" preferred stock, which may be issued in one or more series upon authorization of our board of directors. Our board of directors is authorized to fix the designations, powers, preferences and the relative, participating, optional or other special rights and any qualifications, limitations and restrictions of the shares of each series of preferred stock. The authorized shares of our preferred stock are available for issuance without further action by our stockholders, unless such action is required by applicable law or the rules of any stock exchange on which our securities may be listed. If the approval of our stockholders is not required for the issuance of shares of our preferred stock, our board may determine not to seek stockholder approval. The specific terms of any series of preferred stock offered pursuant to this prospectus will be described in the prospectus supplement relating to that series of preferred stock.

        A series of our preferred stock could, depending on the terms of such series, impede the completion of a merger, tender offer or other takeover attempt. Our board of directors will make any determination to issue preferred shares based upon its judgment as to the best interests of our stockholders. Our directors, in so acting, could issue preferred stock having terms that could discourage an acquisition attempt through which an acquirer may be able to change the composition of our board of directors, including a tender offer or other transaction that some, or a majority, of our stockholders might believe to be in their best interests or in which stockholders might receive a premium for their stock over the then-current market price of the stock.

        The preferred stock has the terms described below unless otherwise provided in the prospectus supplement relating to a particular series of preferred stock. You should read the prospectus supplement relating to the particular series of preferred stock being offered for specific terms, including:

        The preferred stock will, when issued, be fully paid and non-assessable. Unless otherwise specified in the prospectus supplement, each series of preferred stock will rank equally as to dividends and liquidation rights in all respects with each other series of preferred stock. The rights of holders of shares of each series of preferred stock will be subordinate to those of our general creditors.

        As described under "Description of Depositary Shares," we may, at our option, with respect to any series of preferred stock, elect to offer fractional interests in shares of preferred stock, and provide for

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the issuance of depositary receipts representing depositary shares, each of which will represent a fractional interest in a share of the series of preferred stock. The fractional interest will be specified in the prospectus supplement relating to a particular series of preferred stock.

        Rank.    Unless otherwise specified in the prospectus supplement, the preferred stock will, with respect to dividend rights and rights upon our liquidation, dissolution or winding up of our affairs, rank:

        The term "equity securities" does not include convertible debt securities.

        Dividends.    Holders of the preferred stock of each series will be entitled to receive, when, as and if declared by our board of directors, cash dividends at such rates and on such dates described in the prospectus supplement. Different series of preferred stock may be entitled to dividends at different rates or based on different methods of calculation. The dividend rate may be fixed or variable or both. Dividends will be payable to the holders of record as they appear on our stock books on record dates fixed by our board of directors, as specified in the applicable prospectus supplement.

        Dividends on any series of preferred stock may be cumulative or noncumulative, as described in the applicable prospectus supplement. If our board of directors does not declare a dividend payable on a dividend payment date on any series of noncumulative preferred stock, then the holders of that noncumulative preferred stock will have no right to receive a dividend for that dividend payment date, and we will have no obligation to pay the dividend accrued for that period, whether or not dividends on that series are declared payable on any future dividend payment dates. Dividends on any series of cumulative preferred stock will accrue from the date we initially issue shares of such series or such other date specified in the applicable prospectus supplement.

        No dividends may be declared or paid or funds set apart for the payment of any dividends on any parity securities unless full dividends have been paid or set apart for payment on the preferred stock. If full dividends are not paid, the preferred stock will share dividends pro rata with the parity securities.

        No dividends may be declared or paid or funds set apart for the payment of dividends on any junior securities unless full dividends for all dividend periods terminating on or prior to the date of the declaration or payment will have been paid or declared and a sum sufficient for the payment set apart for payment on the preferred stock.

        Liquidation Preference.    Upon any voluntary or involuntary liquidation, dissolution or winding up of our affairs, then, before we make any distribution or payment to the holders of any common stock or any other class or series of our capital stock ranking junior to the preferred stock in the distribution of assets upon any liquidation, dissolution or winding up of our affairs, the holders of each series of preferred stock shall be entitled to receive out of assets legally available for distribution to stockholders, liquidating distributions in the amount of the liquidation preference per share set forth in the prospectus supplement, plus any accrued and unpaid dividends thereon. Such dividends will not include any accumulation in respect of unpaid noncumulative dividends for prior dividend periods.

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Unless otherwise specified in the prospectus supplement, after payment of the full amount of their liquidating distributions, the holders of preferred stock will have no right or claim to any of our remaining assets. Upon any such voluntary or involuntary liquidation, dissolution or winding up, if our available assets are insufficient to pay the amount of the liquidating distributions on all outstanding preferred stock and the corresponding amounts payable on all other classes or series of our capital stock ranking on parity with the preferred stock and all other such classes or series of shares of capital stock ranking on parity with the preferred stock in the distribution of assets, then the holders of the preferred stock and all other such classes or series of capital stock will share ratably in any such distribution of assets in proportion to the full liquidating distributions to which they would otherwise be entitled.

        Upon any such liquidation, dissolution or winding up and if we have made liquidating distributions in full to all holders of preferred stock, we will distribute our remaining assets among the holders of any other classes or series of capital stock ranking junior to the preferred stock according to their respective rights and preferences and, in each case, according to their respective number of shares. For such purposes, our consolidation or merger with or into any other corporation, trust or entity, or the sale, lease or conveyance of all or substantially all of our property or assets will not be deemed to constitute a liquidation, dissolution or winding up of our affairs.

        Redemption.    If so provided in the applicable prospectus supplement, the preferred stock will be subject to mandatory redemption or redemption at our option, as a whole or in part, in each case upon the terms, at the times and at the redemption prices set forth in such prospectus supplement.

        The prospectus supplement relating to a series of preferred stock that is subject to mandatory redemption will specify the number of shares of preferred stock that shall be redeemed by us in each year commencing after a date to be specified, at a redemption price per share to be specified, together with an amount equal to all accrued and unpaid dividends thereon to the date of redemption. Unless the shares have a cumulative dividend, such accrued dividends will not include any accumulation in respect of unpaid dividends for prior dividend periods. We may pay the redemption price in cash or other property, as specified in the applicable prospectus supplement. If the redemption price for preferred stock of any series is payable only from the net proceeds of the issuance of shares of our capital stock, the terms of such preferred stock may provide that, if no such shares of our capital stock shall have been issued or to the extent the net proceeds from any issuance are insufficient to pay in full the aggregate redemption price then due, such preferred stock shall automatically and mandatorily be converted into the applicable shares of our capital stock pursuant to conversion provisions specified in the applicable prospectus supplement. Notwithstanding the foregoing, we will not redeem any preferred stock of a series unless:

        In addition, we will not acquire any preferred stock of a series unless:

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        However, at any time we may purchase or acquire preferred stock of that series (1) pursuant to a purchase or exchange offer made on the same terms to holders of all outstanding preferred stock of such series or (2) by conversion into or exchange for shares of our capital stock ranking junior to the preferred stock of such series as to dividends and upon liquidation.

        If fewer than all of the outstanding shares of preferred stock of any series are to be redeemed, we will determine the number of shares that may be redeemed pro rata from the holders of record of such shares in proportion to the number of such shares held or for which redemption is requested by such holder or by any other equitable manner that we determine. Such determination will reflect adjustments to avoid redemption of fractional shares.

        Unless otherwise specified in the prospectus supplement, we will mail notice of redemption at least 30 days but not more than 60 days before the redemption date to each holder of record of preferred stock to be redeemed at the address shown on our stock transfer books. Each notice shall state:

        If notice of redemption has been given and we have set aside the funds necessary for such redemption in trust for the benefit of the holders of any shares called for redemption, then from and after the redemption date, dividends will cease to accrue on such shares, and all rights of the holders of such shares will terminate, except the right to receive the redemption price.

        Voting Rights.    Holders of preferred stock will not have any voting rights, except as required by law or as indicated in the applicable prospectus supplement.

        Unless otherwise provided for under the terms of any series of preferred stock, no consent or vote of the holders of shares of preferred stock or any series thereof shall be required for any amendment to our certificate of incorporation that would increase the number of authorized shares of preferred stock or the number of authorized shares of any series thereof or decrease the number of authorized shares of preferred stock or the number of authorized shares of any series thereof (but not below the number of authorized shares of preferred stock or such series, as the case may be, then outstanding).

        Conversion Rights.    The terms and conditions, if any, upon which any series of preferred stock is convertible into our common stock will be set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement relating thereto. Such terms will include the number of shares of common stock into which the shares of preferred stock are convertible, the conversion price, rate or manner of calculation thereof, the conversion period, provisions as to whether conversion will be at our option or at the option of the holders of the preferred stock, the events requiring an adjustment of the conversion price and provisions affecting conversion in the event of the redemption.

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        Transfer Agent and Registrar.    The transfer agent and registrar for the preferred stock will be set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement.

Provisions of Our Certificate of Incorporation and By-laws and Delaware Law That May Have Anti-Takeover Effects

        Staggered Board; Removal of Directors.    Our certificate of incorporation and our bylaws divide our board of directors into three classes with staggered three-year terms. In addition, our certificate of incorporation and our bylaws provide that directors may be removed only for cause and only by the affirmative vote of the holders of 75% of our shares of capital stock present in person or by proxy and entitled to vote. Under our certificate of incorporation and bylaws, any vacancy on our board of directors, including a vacancy resulting from an enlargement of our board of directors, may be filled only by vote of a majority of our directors then in office. Furthermore, our certificate of incorporation provides that the authorized number of directors may be changed only by the resolution of our board of directors. The classification of our board of directors and the limitations on the ability of our stockholders to remove directors, change the authorized number of directors and fill vacancies could make it more difficult for a third party to acquire, or discourage a third party from seeking to acquire, control of our company.

        Stockholder Action; Special Meeting of Stockholders; Advance Notice Requirements for Stockholder Proposals and Director Nominations.    Our certificate of incorporation and our bylaws provide that any action required or permitted to be taken by our stockholders at an annual meeting or special meeting of stockholders may only be taken if it is properly brought before such meeting and may not be taken by written action in lieu of a meeting. Our certificate of incorporation and our bylaws also provide that, except as otherwise required by law, special meetings of the stockholders can only be called by the chairman of our board of directors, our chief executive officer or our board of directors. In addition, our bylaws establish an advance notice procedure for stockholder proposals to be brought before an annual meeting of stockholders, including proposed nominations of candidates for election to our board of directors. Stockholders at an annual meeting may only consider proposals or nominations specified in the notice of meeting or brought before the meeting by or at the direction of our board of directors, or by a stockholder of record on the record date for the meeting, who is entitled to vote at the meeting and who has delivered timely written notice in proper form to our secretary of the stockholder's intention to bring such business before the meeting. These provisions could have the effect of delaying until the next stockholder meeting stockholder actions that are favored by the holders of a majority of our outstanding voting securities. These provisions also could discourage a third party from making a tender offer for our common stock, because even if it acquired a majority of our outstanding voting stock, it would be able to take action as a stockholder, such as electing new directors or approving a merger, only at a duly called stockholders meeting and not by written consent.

        Super-Majority Voting.    The General Corporation Law of the State of Delaware, which we refer to as the DGCL, provides generally that the affirmative vote of a majority of the shares entitled to vote on any matter is required to amend a corporation's certificate of incorporation or bylaws, unless a corporation's certificate of incorporation or bylaws, as the case may be, requires a greater percentage. Our bylaws may be amended or repealed by a majority vote of our board of directors or the affirmative vote of the holders of at least 75% of the votes that all our stockholders would be entitled to cast in any annual election of directors. In addition, the affirmative vote of the holders of at least 75% of the votes that all our stockholders would be entitled to cast in any election of directors is required to amend or repeal or to adopt any provisions inconsistent with any of the provisions of our certificate of incorporation described above.

        Delaware Business Combination Statute.    Section 203 of the DGCL is applicable to us. Section 203 of the DGCL restricts some types of transactions and business combinations between a corporation and

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a 15% stockholder. A 15% stockholder is generally considered by Section 203 to be a person owning 15% or more of the corporation's outstanding voting stock. Section 203 refers to a 15% stockholder as an "interested stockholder." Section 203 restricts these transactions for a period of three years from the date the stockholder acquires 15% or more of our outstanding voting stock. With some exceptions, unless the transaction is approved by the board of directors and the holders of at least two-thirds of the outstanding voting stock of the corporation, Section 203 prohibits significant business transactions such as:

        The shares held by the interested stockholder are not counted as outstanding when calculating the two-thirds of the outstanding voting stock needed for approval.

        The prohibition against these transactions does not apply if:

Directors' Liability

        Our certificate of incorporation limits the personal liability of directors for breach of fiduciary duty to the maximum extent permitted by the Delaware General Corporation Law and provides that no director will have personal liability to us or to our stockholders for monetary damages for breach of fiduciary duty or other duty as a director. However, these provisions do not eliminate or limit the liability of any of our directors:

        Any amendment to or repeal of these provisions will not eliminate or reduce the effect of these provisions in respect of any act, omission or claim that occurred or arose prior to such amendment or repeal. If the Delaware General Corporation Law is amended to provide for further limitations on the personal liability of directors of corporations, then the personal liability of our directors will be further limited to the greatest extent permitted by the Delaware General Corporation Law.

        Our certificate of incorporation provides that we must indemnify our directors and officers and we must advance expenses, including attorneys' fees, to our directors and officers in connection with legal proceedings, subject to very limited exceptions.

        We maintain a general liability insurance policy that covers certain liabilities of our directors and officers arising out of claims based on acts or omissions in their capacities as directors or officers. In

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addition, we have entered into indemnification agreements with our directors and executive officers. These indemnification agreements may require us, among other things, to indemnify each such director or executive officer, as applicable, for some expenses, including attorneys' fees, judgments, fines and settlement amounts incurred by him or her in any action or proceeding arising out of his or her service as one of our directors or executive officers, as applicable.

        Certain of our non-employee directors may, through their relationships with their employers, be insured or indemnified against certain liabilities incurred in their capacity as members of our board of directors.

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DESCRIPTION OF DEPOSITARY SHARES

General

        We may, at our option, elect to offer fractional shares of preferred stock, which we call depositary shares, rather than full shares of preferred stock. If we do, we will issue to the public receipts, called depositary receipts, for depositary shares, each of which will represent a fraction, to be described in the applicable prospectus supplement, of a share of a particular series of preferred stock. Unless otherwise provided in the prospectus supplement, each owner of a depositary share will be entitled, in proportion to the applicable fractional interest in a share of preferred stock represented by the depositary share, to all the rights and preferences of the preferred stock represented by the depositary share. Those rights include dividend, voting, redemption, conversion and liquidation rights.

        The shares of preferred stock underlying the depositary shares will be deposited with a bank or trust company selected by us to act as depositary under a deposit agreement between us, the depositary and the holders of the depositary receipts. The depositary will be the transfer agent, registrar and dividend disbursing agent for the depositary shares.

        The depositary shares will be evidenced by depositary receipts issued pursuant to the deposit agreement. Holders of depositary receipts agree to be bound by the deposit agreement, which requires holders to take certain actions such as filing proof of residence and paying certain charges.

        The summary of terms of the depositary shares contained in this prospectus is not a complete description of the terms of the depositary shares. You should refer to the form of the deposit agreement, our certificate of incorporation and the certificate of designation for the applicable series of preferred stock that are, or will be, filed with the SEC.

Dividends and Other Distributions

        The depositary will distribute all cash dividends or other cash distributions, if any, received in respect of the preferred stock underlying the depositary shares to the record holders of depositary shares in proportion to the numbers of depositary shares owned by those holders on the relevant record date. The relevant record date for depositary shares will be the same date as the record date for the underlying preferred stock.

        If there is a distribution other than in cash, the depositary will distribute property (including securities) received by it to the record holders of depositary shares, unless the depositary determines that it is not feasible to make the distribution. If this occurs, the depositary may, with our approval, adopt another method for the distribution, including selling the property and distributing the net proceeds from the sale to the holders.

Liquidation Preference

        If a series of preferred stock underlying the depositary shares has a liquidation preference, in the event of the voluntary or involuntary liquidation, dissolution or winding up of us, holders of depositary shares will be entitled to receive the fraction of the liquidation preference accorded each share of the applicable series of preferred stock, as set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement.

Withdrawal of Stock

        Unless the related depositary shares have been previously called for redemption, upon surrender of the depositary receipts at the office of the depositary, the holder of the depositary shares will be entitled to delivery, at the office of the depositary to or upon his or her order, of the number of whole shares of the preferred stock and any money or other property represented by the depositary shares. If the depositary receipts delivered by the holder evidence a number of depositary shares in excess of the

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number of depositary shares representing the number of whole shares of preferred stock to be withdrawn, the depositary will deliver to the holder at the same time a new depositary receipt evidencing the excess number of depositary shares. In no event will the depositary deliver fractional shares of preferred stock upon surrender of depositary receipts. Holders of preferred stock thus withdrawn may not thereafter deposit those shares under the deposit agreement or receive depositary receipts evidencing depositary shares therefor.

Redemption of Depositary Shares

        Whenever we redeem shares of preferred stock held by the depositary, the depositary will redeem as of the same redemption date the number of depositary shares representing shares of the preferred stock so redeemed, so long as we have paid in full to the depositary the redemption price of the preferred stock to be redeemed plus an amount equal to any accumulated and unpaid dividends on the preferred stock to the date fixed for redemption. The redemption price per depositary share will be equal to the redemption price and any other amounts per share payable on the preferred stock multiplied by the fraction of a share of preferred stock represented by one depositary share. If less than all the depositary shares are to be redeemed, the depositary shares to be redeemed will be selected by lot or pro rata or by any other equitable method as may be determined by the depositary.

        After the date fixed for redemption, depositary shares called for redemption will no longer be deemed to be outstanding and all rights of the holders of depositary shares will cease, except the right to receive the monies payable upon redemption and any money or other property to which the holders of the depositary shares were entitled upon redemption upon surrender to the depositary of the depositary receipts evidencing the depositary shares.

Voting the Preferred Stock

        Upon receipt of notice of any meeting at which the holders of the preferred stock are entitled to vote, the depositary will mail the information contained in the notice of meeting to the record holders of the depositary receipts relating to that preferred stock. The record date for the depositary receipts relating to the preferred stock will be the same date as the record date for the preferred stock. Each record holder of the depositary shares on the record date will be entitled to instruct the depositary as to the exercise of the voting rights pertaining to the number of shares of preferred stock represented by that holder's depositary shares. The depositary will endeavor, insofar as practicable, to vote the number of shares of preferred stock represented by the depositary shares in accordance with those instructions, and we will agree to take all action that may be deemed necessary by the depositary in order to enable the depositary to do so. The depositary will not vote any shares of preferred stock except to the extent it receives specific instructions from the holders of depositary shares representing that number of shares of preferred stock.

Charges of Depositary

        We will pay all transfer and other taxes and governmental charges arising solely from the existence of the depositary arrangements. We will pay charges of the depositary in connection with the initial deposit of the preferred stock and any redemption of the preferred stock. Holders of depositary receipts will pay transfer, income and other taxes and governmental charges and such other charges (including those in connection with the receipt and distribution of dividends, the sale or exercise of rights, the withdrawal of the preferred stock and the transferring, splitting or grouping of depositary receipts) as are expressly provided in the deposit agreement to be for their accounts. If these charges have not been paid by the holders of depositary receipts, the depositary may refuse to transfer depositary shares, withhold dividends and distributions and sell the depositary shares evidenced by the depositary receipt.

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Amendment and Termination of the Deposit Agreement

        The form of depositary receipt evidencing the depositary shares and any provision of the deposit agreement may be amended by agreement between us and the depositary. However, any amendment that materially and adversely alters the rights of the holders of depositary shares, other than fee changes, will not be effective unless the amendment has been approved by the holders of a majority of the outstanding depositary shares. The deposit agreement may be terminated by the depositary or us only if:

Resignation and Removal of Depositary

        The depositary may resign at any time by delivering to us notice of its election to do so, and we may remove the depositary at any time. Any resignation or removal of the depositary will take effect upon our appointment of a successor depositary and its acceptance of such appointment. The successor depositary must be appointed within 60 days after delivery of the notice of resignation or removal and must be a bank or trust company having its principal office in the United States and having the requisite combined capital and surplus as set forth in the applicable agreement.

Notices

        The depositary will forward to holders of depositary receipts all notices, reports and other communications, including proxy solicitation materials received from us, that are delivered to the depositary and that we are required to furnish to the holders of the preferred stock. In addition, the depositary will make available for inspection by holders of depositary receipts at the principal office of the depositary, and at such other places as it may from time to time deem advisable, any reports and communications we deliver to the depositary as the holder of preferred stock.

Limitation of Liability

        Neither we nor the depositary will be liable if either we or it is prevented or delayed by law or any circumstance beyond its control in performing its obligations. Our obligations and those of the depositary will be limited to performance in good faith of our and their duties thereunder. We and the depositary will not be obligated to prosecute or defend any legal proceeding in respect of any depositary shares or preferred stock unless satisfactory indemnity is furnished. We and the depositary may rely upon written advice of counsel or accountants, on information provided by persons presenting preferred stock for deposit, holders of depositary receipts or other persons believed to be competent to give such information and on documents believed to be genuine and to have been signed or presented by the proper party or parties.

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DESCRIPTION OF UNITS

        We may issue units comprised of one or more of the other securities that may be offered under this prospectus, in any combination. The following, together with the additional information we may include in the applicable prospectus supplement, summarizes the material terms and provisions of the units that we may offer under this prospectus. While the terms summarized below will apply generally to any units we may offer, we will describe the particular terms of any series of units in more detail in the applicable prospectus supplement.

        Each unit will be issued so that the holder of the unit is also the holder of each security included in the unit. Thus, the holder of a unit will have the rights and obligations of a holder of each included security. The unit agreement under which a unit is issued may provide that the securities included in the unit may not be held or transferred separately at any time, or at any time before a specified date.

        Any applicable prospectus supplement will describe:

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DESCRIPTION OF WARRANTS

        We may issue warrants to purchase common stock, preferred stock, depositary shares or debt securities. We may offer warrants separately or together with one or more additional warrants, common stock, preferred stock, depositary shares or debt securities, or any combination of those securities in the form of units, as described in the applicable prospectus supplement. If we issue warrants as part of a unit, the accompanying prospectus supplement will specify whether those warrants may be separated from the other securities in the unit prior to the expiration date of the warrants. The applicable prospectus supplement will also describe the following terms of any warrants:

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FORMS OF SECURITIES

        Each debt security, depositary share, unit and warrant will be represented either by a certificate issued in definitive form to a particular investor or by one or more global securities representing the entire issuance of securities. Unless the applicable prospectus supplement provides otherwise, certificated securities in definitive form and global securities will be issued in registered form. Definitive securities name you or your nominee as the owner of the security, and in order to transfer or exchange these securities or to receive payments other than interest or other interim payments, you or your nominee must physically deliver the securities to the trustee, registrar, paying agent or other agent, as applicable. Global securities name a depositary or its nominee as the owner of the debt securities, depositary shares, units or warrants represented by these global securities. The depositary maintains a computerized system that will reflect each investor's beneficial ownership of the securities through an account maintained by the investor with its broker/dealer, bank, trust company or other representative, as we explain more fully below.

Global Securities

        We may issue the debt securities, depositary shares, units and warrants in the form of one or more fully registered global securities that will be deposited with a depositary or its nominee identified in the applicable prospectus supplement and registered in the name of that depositary or nominee. In those cases, one or more global securities will be issued in a denomination or aggregate denominations equal to the portion of the aggregate principal or face amount of the securities to be represented by global securities. Unless and until it is exchanged in whole for securities in definitive registered form, a global security may not be transferred except as a whole by and among the depositary for the global security, the nominees of the depositary or any successors of the depositary or those nominees.

        If not described below, any specific terms of the depositary arrangement with respect to any securities to be represented by a global security will be described in the prospectus supplement relating to those securities. We anticipate that the following provisions will apply to all depositary arrangements.

        Ownership of beneficial interests in a global security will be limited to persons, called participants, that have accounts with the depositary or persons that may hold interests through participants. Upon the issuance of a global security, the depositary will credit, on its book-entry registration and transfer system, the participants' accounts with the respective principal or face amounts of the securities beneficially owned by the participants. Any dealers, underwriters or agents participating in the distribution of the securities will designate the accounts to be credited. Ownership of beneficial interests in a global security will be shown on, and the transfer of ownership interests will be effected only through, records maintained by the depositary, with respect to interests of participants, and on the records of participants, with respect to interests of persons holding through participants. The laws of some states may require that some purchasers of securities take physical delivery of these securities in definitive form. These laws may impair your ability to own, transfer or pledge beneficial interests in global securities.

        So long as the depositary, or its nominee, is the registered owner of a global security, that depositary or its nominee, as the case may be, will be considered the sole owner or holder of the securities represented by the global security for all purposes under the applicable indenture, deposit agreement, warrant agreement or unit agreement. Except as described below, owners of beneficial interests in a global security will not be entitled to have the securities represented by the global security registered in their names, will not receive or be entitled to receive physical delivery of the securities in definitive form and will not be considered the owners or holders of the securities under the applicable indenture, deposit agreement, unit agreement or warrant agreement. Accordingly, each person owning a beneficial interest in a global security must rely on the procedures of the depositary for that global security and, if that person is not a participant, on the procedures of the participant through which the

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person owns its interest, to exercise any rights of a holder under the applicable indenture, deposit agreement, unit agreement or warrant agreement. We understand that under existing industry practices, if we request any action of holders or if an owner of a beneficial interest in a global security desires to give or take any action that a holder is entitled to give or take under the applicable indenture, deposit agreement, unit agreement or warrant agreement, the depositary for the global security would authorize the participants holding the relevant beneficial interests to give or take that action, and the participants would authorize beneficial owners owning through them to give or take that action or would otherwise act upon the instructions of beneficial owners holding through them.

        Principal, premium, if any, and interest payments on debt securities, and any payments to holders with respect to depositary shares, warrants or units, represented by a global security registered in the name of a depositary or its nominee will be made to the depositary or its nominee, as the case may be, as the registered owner of the global security. None of us, or any trustee, warrant agent, unit agent or other agent of ours, or any agent of any trustee, warrant agent or unit agent will have any responsibility or liability for any aspect of the records relating to payments made on account of beneficial ownership interests in the global security or for maintaining, supervising or reviewing any records relating to those beneficial ownership interests.

        We expect that the depositary for any of the securities represented by a global security, upon receipt of any payment to holders of principal, premium, interest or other distribution of underlying securities or other property on that registered global security, will immediately credit participants' accounts in amounts proportionate to their respective beneficial interests in that global security as shown on the records of the depositary. We also expect that payments by participants to owners of beneficial interests in a global security held through participants will be governed by standing customer instructions and customary practices, as is now the case with the securities held for the accounts of customers or registered in "street name," and will be the responsibility of those participants.

        If the depositary for any of the securities represented by a global security is at any time unwilling or unable to continue as depositary or ceases to be a clearing agency registered under the Exchange Act, and a successor depositary registered as a clearing agency under the Exchange Act is not appointed by us within 90 days, we will issue securities in definitive form in exchange for the global security that had been held by the depositary. Any securities issued in definitive form in exchange for a global security will be registered in the name or names that the depositary gives to the relevant trustee, warrant agent, unit agent or other relevant agent of ours or theirs. It is expected that the depositary's instructions will be based upon directions received by the depositary from participants with respect to ownership of beneficial interests in the global security that had been held by the depositary.

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PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION

        We may sell securities:

In addition, we may issue the securities as a dividend or distribution or in a subscription rights offering to our existing security holders. This prospectus may be used in connection with any offering of our securities through any of these methods or other methods described in the applicable prospectus supplement.

        We may directly solicit offers to purchase securities, or agents may be designated to solicit such offers. We will, in the prospectus supplement relating to such offering, name any agent that could be viewed as an underwriter under the Securities Act, and describe any commissions that we must pay. Any such agent will be acting on a best efforts basis for the period of its appointment or, if indicated in the applicable prospectus supplement, on a firm commitment basis.

        The distribution of the securities may be effected from time to time in one or more transactions:

        Each prospectus supplement will describe the method of distribution of the securities and any applicable restrictions.

        The prospectus supplement with respect to the securities of a particular series will describe the terms of the offering of the securities, including the following:

        If any underwriters or agents are utilized in the sale of the securities in respect of which this prospectus is delivered, we will enter into an underwriting agreement or other agreement with them at the time of sale to them, and we will set forth in the prospectus supplement relating to such offering the names of the underwriters or agents and the terms of the related agreement with them.

        If a dealer is utilized in the sale of the securities in respect of which this prospectus is delivered, we will sell such securities to the dealer, as principal. The dealer may then resell such securities to the public at varying prices to be determined by such dealer at the time of resale.

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        If we offer securities in a subscription rights offering to our existing security holders, we may enter into a standby underwriting agreement with dealers, acting as standby underwriters. We may pay the standby underwriters a commitment fee for the securities they commit to purchase on a standby basis. If we do not enter into a standby underwriting arrangement, we may retain a dealer-manager to manage a subscription rights offering for us.

        Remarketing firms, agents, underwriters, dealers and other persons may be entitled under agreements which they may enter into with us to indemnification by us against certain civil liabilities, including liabilities under the Securities Act, and may be customers of, engage in transactions with or perform services for us in the ordinary course of business.

        If so indicated in the applicable prospectus supplement, we will authorize underwriters or other persons acting as our agents to solicit offers by certain institutions to purchase securities from us pursuant to delayed delivery contracts providing for payment and delivery on the date stated in the prospectus supplement. Each contract will be for an amount not less than, and the aggregate amount of securities sold pursuant to such contracts shall not be less nor more than, the respective amounts stated in the prospectus supplement. Institutions with whom the contracts, when authorized, may be made include commercial and savings banks, insurance companies, pension funds, investment companies, educational and charitable institutions and other institutions, but shall in all cases be subject to our approval. Delayed delivery contracts will not be subject to any conditions except that:

        Certain agents, underwriters and dealers, and their associates and affiliates may be customers of, have borrowing relationships with, engage in other transactions with, and/or perform services, including investment banking services, for us or one or more of our respective affiliates in the ordinary course of business.

        In order to facilitate the offering of the securities, any underwriters may engage in transactions that stabilize, maintain or otherwise affect the price of the securities or any other securities the prices of which may be used to determine payments on such securities. Specifically, any underwriters may overallot in connection with the offering, creating a short position for their own accounts. In addition, to cover overallotments or to stabilize the price of the securities or of any such other securities, the underwriters may bid for, and purchase, the securities or any such other securities in the open market. Finally, in any offering of the securities through a syndicate of underwriters, the underwriting syndicate may reclaim selling concessions allowed to an underwriter or a dealer for distributing the securities in the offering if the syndicate repurchases previously distributed securities in transactions to cover syndicate short positions, in stabilization transactions or otherwise. Any of these activities may stabilize or maintain the market price of the securities above independent market levels. Any such underwriters are not required to engage in these activities and may end any of these activities at any time.

        Under Rule 15c6-1 of the Exchange Act, trades in the secondary market generally are required to settle in two business days, unless the parties to any such trade expressly agree otherwise or the securities are sold by us to an underwriter in a firm commitment underwritten offering. The applicable prospectus supplement may provide that the original issue date for your securities may be more than two scheduled business days after the trade date for your securities. Accordingly, in such a case, if you wish to trade securities on any date prior to the second business day before the original issue date for

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your securities, you will be required, by virtue of the fact that your securities initially are expected to settle in more than two scheduled business days after the trade date for your securities, to make alternative settlement arrangements to prevent a failed settlement.

        The securities may be new issues of securities and may have no established trading market. The securities may or may not be listed on a national securities exchange. We can make no assurance as to the liquidity of or the existence of trading markets for any of the securities.

        In compliance with the guidelines of the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, or FINRA, the aggregate maximum discount, commission or agency fees or other items constituting underwriting compensation to be received by any FINRA member or independent broker-dealer will not exceed 8% of the proceeds from any offering pursuant to this prospectus and any applicable prospectus supplement.

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LEGAL MATTERS

        Unless the applicable prospectus supplement indicates otherwise, the validity of the securities in respect of which this prospectus is being delivered will be passed upon by Wilmer Cutler Pickering Hale and Dorr LLP.

EXPERTS

        Ernst & Young LLP, independent registered public accounting firm, has audited our financial statements included in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2017, and the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2017, as set forth in their reports, which are incorporated by reference in this prospectus and elsewhere in the registration statement. Our financial statements are incorporated by reference in reliance on Ernst & Young LLP's reports, given on their authority as experts in accounting and auditing.

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OPHTHOTECH CORPORATION

$150,000,000

Debt Securities
Common Stock
Preferred Stock
Depositary Shares
Units
Warrants

PROSPECTUS

                        , 2018

   


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The information in this prospectus is not complete and may be changed. We may not sell these securities until the registration statement filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission is effective. This prospectus is not an offer to sell these securities and we are not soliciting offers to buy these securities in any jurisdiction where the offer or sale is not permitted.

Subject to completion, dated August 1, 2018

$50,000,000

PROSPECTUS

Ophthotech Corporation

Common Stock

        We have entered into a sales agreement with Cowen and Company, LLC, or Cowen, relating to shares of our common stock offered by this prospectus. In accordance with the terms of the sales agreement, we may offer and sell shares of our common stock having an aggregate offering price of up to $50,000,000 from time to time through Cowen acting as our agent.

        Our common stock is listed on The Nasdaq Global Select Market under the symbol "OPHT". On July 31, 2018, the last reported sale price of our common stock was $2.49 per share.

        Sales of our common stock, if any, under this prospectus will be made in sales deemed to be "at the market offerings" as defined in Rule 415 promulgated under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Act. Cowen is not required to sell any specific amount of securities, but will act as our sales agent using commercially reasonable efforts consistent with its normal trading and sales practices, on mutually agreed terms between Cowen and us. There is no arrangement for funds to be received in any escrow, trust or similar arrangement.

        The compensation to Cowen for sales of common stock sold pursuant to the sales agreement will be an amount equal to 3% of the gross proceeds of any shares of common stock sold under the sales agreement. In connection with the sale of the common stock on our behalf, Cowen will be deemed to be an "underwriter" within the meaning of the Securities Act and the compensation of Cowen will be deemed to be underwriting commissions or discounts. We have also agreed to provide indemnification and contribution to Cowen with respect to certain liabilities, including liabilities under the Securities Act or the Exchange Act of 1934, as amended.

        Our business and an investment in our common stock involve significant risks. These risks are described under the caption "Risk Factors" beginning on page SA-3 of this prospectus and in the documents incorporated by reference into this prospectus.

        Neither the Securities and Exchange Commission nor any state securities commission has approved or disapproved of these securities or passed upon the accuracy or adequacy of this prospectus. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.

Cowen

   

                        , 2018


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ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS

  SA-ii

FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

 
SA-iii

PROSPECTUS SUMMARY

 
SA-1

THE OFFERING

 
SA-2

RISK FACTORS

 
SA-3

USE OF PROCEEDS

 
SA-5

DIVIDEND POLICY

 
SA-6

DILUTION

 
SA-7

DESCRIPTION OF CAPITAL STOCK

 
SA-8

PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION

 
SA-12

LEGAL MATTERS

 
SA-13

EXPERTS

 
SA-13

WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION

 
SA-13

INCORPORATION BY REFERENCE

 
SA-13

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ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS

        This prospectus is part of a registration statement that we filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission, or the SEC, utilizing a "shelf" registration process. Under this shelf registration process, we may from time to time sell shares of our common stock having an aggregate offering price of up to $50,000,000 under this prospectus at prices and on terms to be determined by market conditions at the time of the offering.

        Before buying any of the common stock that we are offering, we urge you to carefully read this prospectus and all of the information incorporated by reference herein, as well as the additional information described under the headings "Where You Can Find More Information" and "Incorporation by Reference." These documents contain important information that you should consider when making your investment decision.

        To the extent there is a conflict between the information contained in this prospectus, on the one hand, and the information contained in any document incorporated by reference in this prospectus, on the other hand, you should rely on the information in this prospectus, provided that if any statement in one of these documents is inconsistent with a statement in another document having a later date—for example, a document incorporated by reference in this prospectus—the statement in the document having the later date modifies or supersedes the earlier statement.

        We have not, and Cowen has not, authorized anyone to provide you with different information than that contained or incorporated by reference in this prospectus and any related free writing prospectus filed by us with the SEC. We and Cowen take no responsibility for, and can provide no assurance as to the reliability of, any other information that others may give you. If anyone provides you with different or inconsistent information, you should not rely on it. This prospectus does not constitute an offer to sell or the solicitation of an offer to buy any securities other than the securities described in this prospectus or an offer to sell or the solicitation of an offer to buy such securities in any circumstances in which such offer or solicitation is unlawful. You should assume that the information appearing in this prospectus, the documents incorporated by reference and any related free writing prospectus is accurate only as of their respective dates. Our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects may have changed materially since those dates.

        You should also read and consider the information in the documents to which we have referred you in the sections entitled "Where You Can Find More Information" and "Incorporation by Reference" in this prospectus.

        Unless the context otherwise indicates, references in this prospectus to "Ophthotech," "we," "our," "us" and "the Company" refer, collectively, to Ophthotech Corporation, a Delaware corporation, and its consolidated subsidiaries.

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FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

        This prospectus and the information incorporated by reference in this prospectus include "forward-looking statements" within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Act, and Section 21E of the Exchange Act. All statements, other than statements of historical facts, contained or incorporated by reference in this prospectus, including statements regarding our strategy, future operations, future financial position, future revenues, projected costs, prospects, plans and objectives of management, are forward-looking statements. The words "anticipate," "believe," "goals," "estimate," "expect," "intend," "may," "might," "plan," "predict," "project," "target," "potential," "will," "would," "could," "should," "continue" and similar expressions are intended to identify forward-looking statements, although not all forward-looking statements contain these identifying words. In addition, any statements that refer to the potential benefits of our business plan and strategy to develop Zimura® (avacincaptad pegol) age-related retinal diseases or autosomal recessive Stargardt disease and our gene therapy product candidate for rhodopsin-mediated autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa and to potentially expand our product pipeline, including through collaborative gene therapy research programs; our ability to in-license or acquire additional products, product candidates or technologies to treat ophthalmic diseases and the timing, costs, conduct and outcome of preclinical development or clinical trials we undertake for these newly acquired assets; our expectations related to our use of available cash; our estimates regarding expenses, future revenues, capital requirements and needs for, and ability to obtain, additional financing; the timing, costs, conduct and outcome of our ongoing and planned clinical trials, including statements regarding the timing of the initiation of and completion of enrollment in such trials, and the costs to obtain and timing of receipt of initial results from, and the completion of, such trials; the timing of and our ability to obtain marketing approval of our product candidates, and the ability of our product candidates to meet existing or future regulatory standards; the potential advantages of our product candidates; the rate and degree of potential market acceptance and clinical utility of our product candidates, if approved; our estimates regarding the potential market opportunity for our product candidates; the potential receipt of revenues from future sales of our product candidates, if approved; the potential receipt of revenue from potential future collaborations; our sales, marketing and distribution capabilities and strategy; our ability to establish and maintain arrangements for the manufacture of our product candidates; our intellectual property position; the impact of existing and new governmental laws and regulations; and our competitive position are forward-looking statements.

        We may not actually achieve the plans, intentions or expectations disclosed in our forward-looking statements, and you should not place undue reliance on our forward-looking statements. Actual results or events could differ materially from the plans, intentions and expectations disclosed in the forward-looking statements we make. See the "Risk Factors" section of this prospectus for more information. Our forward-looking statements do not reflect the potential impact of any future acquisitions, mergers, dispositions, joint ventures or investments we may make. We do not assume any obligation to update any forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise, except as required by law.

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PROSPECTUS SUMMARY

        This summary highlights selected information contained elsewhere in this prospectus and in the documents we incorporate by reference. This summary does not contain all of the information you should consider before making an investment decision. You should read this entire prospectus carefully, especially the risks of investing in our common stock discussed under "Risk Factors" beginning on page SA-3 of this prospectus, along with our consolidated financial statements and notes to those consolidated financial statements and the other information incorporated by reference in this prospectus.


Ophthotech Corporation

Our Business

        We are a science-driven biopharmaceutical company specializing in the development of novel therapies to treat ophthalmic diseases, with a focus on age-related and orphan retinal diseases. Our multi-track strategy is to leverage our clinical experience and retina expertise to develop therapies for large market, age-related retinal diseases, where unmet medical needs remain for these patients, and for orphan eye diseases with a focus on underserved patients, and to utilize a disciplined business development approach to obtain additional products, product candidates and technologies in these disease areas. We believe that there are advantages to pursuing drug development for orphan indications, including the potential for regulatory exclusivity, the potential for clinical trials with smaller sample sizes and the potential for accelerated development timelines. Our team has significant ophthalmic drug development experience and deep relationships with global ophthalmology thought leaders. We have an extensive network of ophthalmic clinical trial sites, having worked with over 250 sites worldwide. We believe that the combination of these factors, together with our experience in designing and executing IND-enabling studies and clinical trials for eye diseases, and specifically back of the eye diseases, provide us a competitive advantage.


Company Information

        We were incorporated under the laws of the State of Delaware in 2007 under the name Ophthotech Corporation. Our principal executive offices are located at One Penn Plaza, 35th Floor, New York, NY 10119, and our telephone number is (212) 845-8200. Our website address is www.ophthotech.com. The information contained on, or that can be accessed through, our website is not a part of this prospectus. We have included our website address in this prospectus solely as an inactive textual reference.

SA-1


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THE OFFERING

Common Stock Offered by Us

  Shares of our common stock having an aggregate offering price of up to $50,000,000.

Manner of Offering

 

"At the market" offering that may be made from time to time through our sales agent, Cowen and Company, LLC. See "Plan of Distribution."

Use of Proceeds

 

We intend to use the net proceeds from the sale of any securities offered under this prospectus for general corporate purposes. Although we have not yet identified specific uses for these proceeds, we currently anticipate using the proceeds for some or all of the following purposes: to fund our preclinical and clinical research and development efforts, acquisitions or in-licenses of other products, product candidates, businesses or technologies, working capital and capital expenditures. See "Use of Proceeds."

Risk Factors

 

You should read the "Risk Factors" section of this prospectus for a discussion of factors to consider carefully before deciding to purchase shares of our common stock.

Nasdaq Global Select Market Symbol

 

OPHT

SA-2


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RISK FACTORS

        Investing in our common stock involves significant risks. In deciding whether to invest, and in consultation with your own financial and legal advisors, you should carefully consider the following risk factors, as well as the other information contained in this prospectus and in our filings with the SEC that we have incorporated by reference in this prospectus. Any of the following risks could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects and cause the value of our stock to decline, which could cause you to lose all or part of your investment. The risks and uncertainties we have described are not the only ones facing our company. Additional risks and uncertainties not presently known to us or that we currently deem immaterial may also affect our business operations.

Risks Related to This Offering

         If a significant portion of our total outstanding shares are sold into the market, the market price of our common stock could drop significantly, even if our business is doing well.

        Sales of a substantial number of shares of our common stock in the public market could occur at any time. These sales, or the perception in the market that the holders of a large number of shares intend to sell shares, could reduce the market price of our common stock. These sales also might make it difficult for us to sell equity securities in the future at a time and at a price that we deem appropriate. We cannot predict the size of future issuances or the effect, if any, that this offering or any future issuances may have on the market price for our common stock. Moreover, we have filed registration statements on Form S-8 registering all shares of common stock that we may issue under our equity compensation plans. Once registered on Form S-8, shares underlying these equity awards can be freely sold in the public market upon issuance, subject to volume, notice and manner of sale limitations applicable to affiliates.

         We have broad discretion in the use of our available cash and other sources of funding, including the net proceeds we receive from this offering, and may not use them effectively.

        Our management has broad discretion in the use of our available cash and other sources of funding, including the net proceeds we receive in this offering, and could spend those resources in ways that do not improve our results of operations or enhance the value of our common stock. The failure by our management to apply these funds effectively could result in financial losses that could have a material adverse effect on our business, cause the price of our common stock to decline and delay the development of our product candidates. Pending their use, we may invest our available cash, including the net proceeds we receive in this offering, in a manner that does not produce income or that loses value.

         If you purchase shares of common stock in this offering, you will suffer immediate dilution of your investment.

        The shares sold in this offering, if any, will be sold from time to time at various prices. However, we expect that the offering price of our common stock in this offering will be substantially higher than the net tangible book value per share of our outstanding common stock. Therefore, if you purchase shares of our common stock in this offering, you will pay a price per share that substantially exceeds our net tangible book value per share after this offering. To the extent outstanding options are exercised, you will incur further dilution. Based on an assumed public offering price of $2.49 per share, which is the last reported sale price of our common stock on July 31, 2018, you will experience immediate dilution of $1.33 per share, representing the difference between our pro forma net tangible book value per share after giving effect to this offering and the assumed public offering price.

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        In addition to this offering, subject to market conditions and other factors, we may pursue additional equity financings in the future, including future public offerings or future private placements of equity securities or securities convertible into or exchangeable for equity securities. Further, the exercise of outstanding options could result in further dilution to investors and any additional shares issued in connection with acquisitions will result in dilution to investors. In addition, the market price of our common stock could fall as a result of resales of any of these shares of common stock due to an increased number of shares available for sale in the market.

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USE OF PROCEEDS

        We may issue and sell shares of our common stock having aggregate sales proceeds of up to $50,000,000 from time to time. Because there is no minimum offering amount required as a condition to close this offering, the actual total public offering amount, commissions and net proceeds to us, if any, are not determinable at this time.

        We intend to use the net proceeds from the sale of any shares of common stock offered under this prospectus for general corporate purposes. Although we have not yet identified specific uses for these proceeds, we currently anticipate using the proceeds for some or all of the following purposes: to fund our preclinical and clinical research and development efforts, acquisitions or in-licenses of other products, product candidates, businesses or technologies, working capital and capital expenditures.

        We have not determined the exact amounts we plan to spend on any of the items listed above or the timing of these expenditures. The amounts and timing of our actual expenditures may vary significantly depending on numerous factors, including the actual net proceeds from this offering, the progress of our development efforts, the status of and results from clinical trials, as well as any collaborations that we may enter into with third parties for our product candidates, and any unforeseen cash needs. As a result, our management will retain broad discretion over the allocation of the net proceeds from this offering. We have no current understandings, agreements or commitments for any material acquisitions or licenses of any products, businesses or technologies.

        Pending application of the net proceeds as described above, we may temporarily invest the net proceeds in a variety of capital preservation instruments, including short-term, investment-grade, interest-bearing instruments and U.S. government securities.

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DIVIDEND POLICY

        We have never declared or paid cash dividends on our common stock. We currently intend to retain all of our future earnings, if any, to finance the growth and development of our business. In addition, the terms of any future debt agreements may preclude us from paying dividends. As a result, capital appreciation, if any, of our common stock will be our stockholders' sole source of gain for the foreseeable future.

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DILUTION

        If you invest in our common stock in this offering, your ownership interest will be diluted immediately to the extent of the difference between the price per share you pay in this offering and the net tangible book value per share of our common stock immediately after this offering.

        Our net tangible book value as of June 30, 2018 was $17.5 million, or $0.48 per share of our common stock, based on approximately 36,188,161 shares of our common stock then outstanding. After giving effect to the assumed sale by us of shares of our common stock in the aggregate amount of $50,000,000 million at an assumed public offering price of $2.49 per share (the last sale price of our common stock on July 31, 2018 as reported on The Nasdaq Global Select Market), less the estimated commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us, our net tangible book value at June 30, 2018 would have been $65.7 million, or $1.16 per share. This represents an immediate increase in net tangible book value of $0.68 per share to existing stockholders and an immediate dilution of $1.33 per share to investors in this offering. The following table illustrates this per share dilution. The as-adjusted information is illustrative only and will adjust based on the actual price to the public, the actual number of shares sold and other terms of the offering determined at the time shares of our common stock are sold pursuant to this prospectus. The shares sold in this offering, if any, will be sold from time to time at various prices.

Assumed public offering price per share

        $ 2.49  

Net tangible book value per share as of June 30, 2018

  $ 0.48        

Increase per share attributable to new investors purchasing shares in this offering

  $ 0.68        

As-adjusted net tangible book value per share after giving effect to this offering

        $ 1.16  

Dilution per share to new investors

       
$

1.33
 

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DESCRIPTION OF CAPITAL STOCK

        The following description of our capital stock is intended as a summary only and therefore is not a complete description of our capital stock. This description is based upon, and is qualified by reference to, our certificate of incorporation, our by-laws and applicable provisions of Delaware corporate law. You should read our certificate of incorporation and by-laws, which are filed as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus forms a part, for the provisions that are important to you.

        Our authorized capital stock consists of 200,000,000 shares of our common stock, $0.001 par value per share, and 5,000,000 shares of our preferred stock, $0.001 par value per share. As of July 31, 2018, we had issued and outstanding 36,198,436 shares of our common stock, and no shares of preferred stock were outstanding.

Common Stock

        Annual Meeting.    Annual meetings of our stockholders are held on the date designated in accordance with our by-laws. Written notice must be mailed to each stockholder entitled to vote not less than ten nor more than 60 days before the date of the meeting. The presence in person or by proxy of the holders of record of a majority of our issued and outstanding shares entitled to vote at such meeting constitutes a quorum for the transaction of business at meetings of the stockholders. Special meetings of the stockholders may be called for any purpose by only the board of directors, the Chairman of the board of directors or the Chief Executive Officer. Except as may be otherwise provided by applicable law, our certificate of incorporation or our by-laws, all elections of directors shall be decided by a plurality of the votes cast by the stockholders entitled to vote on the election, and all other questions shall be decided by the vote of the holders of shares of stock having a majority in voting power of the votes cast by the holders of all of the shares of stock present or represented at the meeting and voting affirmatively or negatively on such matter at a duly held meeting of stockholders at which a quorum is present.

        Voting Rights.    Each holder of common stock is entitled to one vote for each share held of record on all matters to be voted upon by stockholders.

        Dividends.    Subject to the rights, powers and preferences of any outstanding preferred stock, and except as provided by law or in our certificate of incorporation, dividends may be declared and paid or set aside for payment on the common stock out of legally available assets or funds when and as declared by the board of directors.

        Liquidation and Dissolution.    Subject to the rights, powers and preferences of any outstanding preferred stock, in the event of our liquidation or dissolution, our net assets will be distributed pro rata to the holders of our common stock.

        Other Rights.    Holders of the common stock have no right to:

        The common stock does not have cumulative voting rights. Holders of shares of the common stock are not required to make additional capital contributions.

        Transfer Agent and Registrar.    Computershare Trust Company, N.A. is transfer agent and registrar for the common stock.

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Preferred Stock

        We are authorized to issue "blank check" preferred stock, which may be issued in one or more series upon authorization of our board of directors. Our board of directors is authorized to fix the designations, powers, preferences and the relative, participating, optional or other special rights and any qualifications, limitations and restrictions of the shares of each series of preferred stock. The authorized shares of our preferred stock are available for issuance without further action by our stockholders, unless such action is required by applicable law or the rules of any stock exchange on which our securities may be listed. If the approval of our stockholders is not required for the issuance of shares of our preferred stock, our board may determine not to seek stockholder approval. Currently, we have no shares of preferred stock outstanding.

Effects of Authorized but Unissued Stock

        We have shares of common stock and preferred stock available for future issuance without stockholder approval, subject to any limitations imposed by the listing standards of The Nasdaq Global Select Market. We may utilize these additional shares for a variety of corporate purposes, including for future public offerings to raise additional capital or facilitate corporate acquisitions or for payment as a dividend on our capital stock. The existence of unissued and unreserved common stock and preferred stock may enable our board of directors to issue shares to persons friendly to current management or to issue preferred stock with terms that could have the effect of making it more difficult for a third party to acquire, or could discourage a third party from seeking to acquire, a controlling interest in our company by means of a merger, tender offer, proxy contest or otherwise. In addition, if we issue preferred stock, the issuance could adversely affect the voting power of holders of common stock and the likelihood that such holders will receive dividend payments and payments upon liquidation.

Provisions of Our Certificate of Incorporation and Bylaws and Delaware Law That May Have Anti-Takeover Effects

        Staggered Board; Removal of Directors.    Our certificate of incorporation and our bylaws divide our board of directors into three classes with staggered three-year terms. In addition, our certificate of incorporation and our bylaws provide that directors may be removed only for cause and only by the affirmative vote of the holders of 75% of our shares of capital stock present in person or by proxy and entitled to vote. Under our certificate of incorporation and bylaws, any vacancy on our board of directors, including a vacancy resulting from an enlargement of our board of directors, may be filled only by vote of a majority of our directors then in office. Furthermore, our certificate of incorporation provides that the authorized number of directors may be changed only by the resolution of our board of directors. The classification of our board of directors and the limitations on the ability of our stockholders to remove directors, change the authorized number of directors and fill vacancies could make it more difficult for a third party to acquire, or discourage a third party from seeking to acquire, control of our company.

        Stockholder Action; Special Meeting of Stockholders; Advance Notice Requirements for Stockholder Proposals and Director Nominations.    Our certificate of incorporation and our bylaws provide that any action required or permitted to be taken by our stockholders at an annual meeting or special meeting of stockholders may only be taken if it is properly brought before such meeting and may not be taken by written action in lieu of a meeting. Our certificate of incorporation and our bylaws also provide that, except as otherwise required by law, special meetings of the stockholders can only be called by the chairman of our board of directors, our chief executive officer or our board of directors. In addition, our bylaws establish an advance notice procedure for stockholder proposals to be brought before an annual meeting of stockholders, including proposed nominations of candidates for election to our board of directors. Stockholders at an annual meeting may only consider proposals or nominations specified in the notice of meeting or brought before the meeting by or at the direction of our board of directors,

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or by a stockholder of record on the record date for the meeting, who is entitled to vote at the meeting and who has delivered timely written notice in proper form to our secretary of the stockholder's intention to bring such business before the meeting. These provisions could have the effect of delaying until the next stockholder meeting stockholder actions that are favored by the holders of a majority of our outstanding voting securities. These provisions also could discourage a third party from making a tender offer for our common stock, because even if it acquired a majority of our outstanding voting stock, it would be able to take action as a stockholder, such as electing new directors or approving a merger, only at a duly called stockholders meeting and not by written consent.

        Super-Majority Voting.    The General Corporation Law of the State of Delaware, which we refer to as the DGCL, provides generally that the affirmative vote of a majority of the shares entitled to vote on any matter is required to amend a corporation's certificate of incorporation or bylaws, unless a corporation's certificate of incorporation or bylaws, as the case may be, requires a greater percentage. Our bylaws may be amended or repealed by a majority vote of our board of directors or the affirmative vote of the holders of at least 75% of the votes that all our stockholders would be entitled to cast in any annual election of directors. In addition, the affirmative vote of the holders of at least 75% of the votes that all our stockholders would be entitled to cast in any election of directors is required to amend or repeal or to adopt any provisions inconsistent with any of the provisions of our certificate of incorporation described above.

        Delaware Business Combination Statute.    Section 203 of the DGCL is applicable to us. Section 203 of the DGCL restricts some types of transactions and business combinations between a corporation and a 15% stockholder. A 15% stockholder is generally considered by Section 203 to be a person owning 15% or more of the corporation's outstanding voting stock. Section 203 refers to a 15% stockholder as an "interested stockholder." Section 203 restricts these transactions for a period of three years from the date the stockholder acquires 15% or more of our outstanding voting stock. With some exceptions, unless the transaction is approved by the board of directors and the holders of at least two-thirds of the outstanding voting stock of the corporation, Section 203 prohibits significant business transactions such as:

        The shares held by the interested stockholder are not counted as outstanding when calculating the two-thirds of the outstanding voting stock needed for approval.

        The prohibition against these transactions does not apply if:

Directors' Liability

        Our certificate of incorporation limits the personal liability of directors for breach of fiduciary duty to the maximum extent permitted by the Delaware General Corporation Law and provides that no director will have personal liability to us or to our stockholders for monetary damages for breach of

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fiduciary duty or other duty as a director. However, these provisions do not eliminate or limit the liability of any of our directors:

        Any amendment to or repeal of these provisions will not eliminate or reduce the effect of these provisions in respect of any act, omission or claim that occurred or arose prior to such amendment or repeal. If the Delaware General Corporation Law is amended to provide for further limitations on the personal liability of directors of corporations, then the personal liability of our directors will be further limited to the greatest extent permitted by the Delaware General Corporation Law.

        Our certificate of incorporation provides that we must indemnify our directors and officers and we must advance expenses, including attorneys' fees, to our directors and officers in connection with legal proceedings, subject to very limited exceptions.

        We maintain a general liability insurance policy that covers certain liabilities of our directors and officers arising out of claims based on acts or omissions in their capacities as directors or officers. In addition, we have entered into indemnification agreements with our directors and executive officers. These indemnification agreements may require us, among other things, to indemnify each such director or executive officer, as applicable, for some expenses, including attorneys' fees, judgments, fines and settlement amounts incurred by him or her in any action or proceeding arising out of his or her service as one of our directors or executive officers, as applicable.

        Certain of our non-employee directors may, through their relationships with their employers, be insured or indemnified against certain liabilities incurred in their capacity as members of our board of directors.

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PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION

        We have entered into a sales agreement with Cowen, under which we may issue and sell from time to time up to $50,000,000 of our common stock through Cowen as our sales agent. Sales of our common stock, if any, will be made at market prices by any method that is deemed to be an "at the market" offering as defined in Rule 415 under the Securities Act, including sales made directly on The Nasdaq Global Select Market or any other trading market for our common stock. If authorized by us in writing, Cowen may purchase shares of our common stock as principal.

        Cowen will offer our common stock subject to the terms and conditions of the sales agreement on a daily basis or as otherwise agreed upon by us and Cowen. We will designate the maximum amount of common stock to be sold through Cowen on a daily basis or otherwise determine such maximum amount together with Cowen. Subject to the terms and conditions of the sales agreement, Cowen will use its commercially reasonable efforts to sell on our behalf all of the shares of common stock requested to be sold by us. We may instruct Cowen not to sell common stock if the sales cannot be effected at or above the price designated by us in any such instruction. Cowen or we may suspend the offering of our common stock being made through Cowen under the sales agreement upon proper notice to the other party. Cowen and we each have the right, by giving written notice as specified in the sales agreement, to terminate the sales agreement in each party's sole discretion at any time.

        The aggregate compensation payable to Cowen as sales agent equals 3.0% of the gross sales price of the shares sold through it pursuant to the sales agreement. We have also agreed to reimburse Cowen up to $100,000 of Cowen's actual outside legal expenses incurred by Cowen in connection with this offering. We estimate that the total expenses of the offering payable by us, excluding commissions payable to Cowen under the sales agreement, will be approximately $350,000.

        The remaining sales proceeds, after deducting any expenses payable by us and any transaction fees imposed by any governmental, regulatory, or self-regulatory organization in connection with the sales, will equal our net proceeds for the sale of such common stock.

        Cowen will provide written confirmation to us following the close of trading on The Nasdaq Global Select Market on each day in which common stock is sold through it as sales agent under the sales agreement. Each confirmation will include the number of shares of common stock sold through it as sales agent on that day, the volume weighted average price of the shares sold, the percentage of the daily trading volume and the net proceeds to us.

        We will report at least quarterly the number of shares of common stock sold through Cowen under the sales agreement, the net proceeds to us and the compensation paid by us to Cowen in connection with the sales of common stock.

        Settlement for sales of common stock will occur, unless the parties agree otherwise, on the second business day that is also a trading day following the date on which any sales were made in return for payment of the net proceeds to us. There is no arrangement for funds to be received in an escrow, trust or similar arrangement.

        In connection with the sales of our common stock on our behalf, Cowen may be deemed to be an "underwriter" within the meaning of the Securities Act, and the compensation paid to Cowen may be deemed to be underwriting commissions or discounts. We have agreed in the sales agreement to provide indemnification and contribution to Cowen against certain liabilities, including liabilities under the Securities Act. As sales agent, Cowen will not engage in any transaction that stabilizes our common stock.

        Our common stock is listed on The Nasdaq Global Select Market and trades under the symbol "OPHT". The transfer agent of our common stock is Computershare Trust Company, N.A.

        Cowen and/or its affiliates have provided, and may in the future provide, various investment banking and other financial services for us for which services they have received and, may in the future receive, customary fees.

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LEGAL MATTERS

        The validity of the shares of common stock offered hereby will be passed upon for us by Wilmer Cutler Pickering Hale and Dorr LLP. Cowen and Company, LLC is being represented in connection with this offering by Davis Polk & Wardwell LLP.


EXPERTS

        Ernst & Young LLP, independent registered public accounting firm, has audited our financial statements included in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2017, and the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2017, as set forth in their reports, which are incorporated by reference in this prospectus and elsewhere in the registration statement. Our financial statements are incorporated by reference in reliance on Ernst & Young LLP's reports, given on their authority as experts in accounting and auditing.


WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION

        We file annual, quarterly and current reports, proxy statements and other information with the SEC. Our SEC filings are available to the public over the Internet at the SEC's website at http://www.sec.gov. Copies of certain information filed by us with the SEC are also available on our website at http://www.ophthotech.com. Our website is not a part of this prospectus and is not incorporated by reference in this prospectus. You may also read and copy any document we file at the SEC's Public Reference Room, 100 F Street, N.E., Washington, D.C. 20549. Please call the SEC at 1-800-SEC-0330 for further information on the operation of the Public Reference Room.

        This prospectus is part of a registration statement we filed with the SEC. This prospectus omits some information contained in the registration statement in accordance with SEC rules and regulations. You should review the information and exhibits in the registration statement for further information about us and our consolidated subsidiaries and the securities we are offering. Statements in this prospectus concerning any document we filed as an exhibit to the registration statement or that we otherwise filed with the SEC are not intended to be comprehensive and are qualified by reference to these filings. You should review the complete document to evaluate these statements. You can obtain a copy of the registration statement from the SEC at the address listed above or from the SEC's website.


INCORPORATION BY REFERENCE

        The SEC allows us to incorporate by reference much of the information we file with the SEC, which means that we can disclose important information to you by referring you to those publicly available documents. The information that we incorporate by reference in this prospectus is considered to be part of this prospectus. Because we are incorporating by reference future filings with the SEC, this prospectus is continually updated and those future filings may modify or supersede some of the information included or incorporated in this prospectus. This means that you must look at all of the SEC filings that we incorporate by reference to determine if any of the statements in this prospectus or in any document previously incorporated by reference have been modified or superseded. This prospectus incorporates by reference the documents listed below (File No. 001-36080) and any future filings we make with the SEC under Sections 13(a), 13(c), 14 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act (in each case, other than those documents or the portions of those documents not deemed to be filed) between the date of the initial registration statement and the effectiveness of the registration statement and following the effectiveness of the registration statement until the offering of the securities under the registration statement is terminated or completed:

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        You may request a copy of these filings, at no cost, by writing or telephoning us at the following address or telephone number:

Ophthotech Corporation
One Penn Plaza, 35th Floor
New York, NY 10119
(212) 845-8200

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OPHTHOTECH CORPORATION

$50,000,000

Common Stock

PROSPECTUS

Cowen

                , 2018


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PART II
INFORMATION NOT REQUIRED IN PROSPECTUS

Item 14.    Other Expenses of Issuance and Distribution.

        Set forth below are estimates (except in the case of the SEC registration fee and the FINRA filing fee) of the amount of fees and expenses to be incurred in connection with the issuance and distribution of the offered securities, other than underwriting discounts and commissions.

SEC registration fee

  $ 18,675  

FINRA filing fee

    23,000  

Printing and engraving

               (1)

Accounting services

               (1)

Legal fees of registrant's counsel

               (1)

Transfer agent's, trustee's and depositary's fees and expenses

               (1)

Miscellaneous

               (1)

Total

  $            (1)

(1)
These fees and expenses are calculated based on the securities offered and the number of issuances and accordingly are not estimated at this time and will be reflected in the applicable prospectus supplement.

Item 15.    Indemnification of Directors and Officers.

        Section 145 of the General Corporation Law of the State of Delaware ("DGCL") provides, generally, that a corporation shall have the power to indemnify any person who was or is a party or is threatened to be made a party to any threatened, pending or completed action, suit or proceeding (except actions by or in the right of the corporation) by reason of the fact that such person is or was a director, officer, employee or agent of the corporation against all expenses, judgments, fines and amounts paid in settlement actually and reasonably incurred by such person in connection with such action, suit or proceeding if such person acted in good faith and in a manner such person reasonably believed to be in or not opposed to the best interests of the corporation and, with respect to any criminal action or proceeding, had no reasonable cause to believe his or her conduct was unlawful. A corporation may similarly indemnify such person for expenses actually and reasonably incurred by such person in connection with the defense or settlement of any action or suit by or in the right of the corporation, provided that such person acted in good faith and in a manner he or she reasonably believed to be in or not opposed to the best interests of the corporation, and, in the case of claims, issues and matters as to which such person shall have been adjudged liable to the corporation, provided that a court shall have determined, upon application, that, despite the adjudication of liability but in view of all of the circumstances of the case, such person is fairly and reasonably entitled to indemnity for such expenses which such court shall deem proper.

        Section 102(b)(7) of the DGCL provides, generally, that our certificate of incorporation may contain a provision eliminating or limiting the personal liability of a director to the corporation or its shareholders for monetary damages for breach of fiduciary duty as a director, provided that such provision may not eliminate or limit the liability of a director (i) for any breach of the director's duty of loyalty to the corporation or its shareholders, (ii) for acts or omissions not in good faith or which involve intentional misconduct or a knowing violation of law, (iii) under section 174 of the DGCL, or (iv) for any transaction from which the director derived an improper personal benefit. No such provision may eliminate or limit the liability of a director for any act or omission occurring prior to the date when such provision became effective.

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        The Registrant's certificate of incorporation provides that it will indemnify each person who was or is a party or threatened to be made a party to any threatened, pending or completed action, suit or proceeding whether civil, criminal, administrative or investigative (other than an action by or in the right of us) by reason of the fact that he or she is or was, or has agreed to become, the Registrant's director or officer, or is or was serving, or has agreed to serve, at the Registrant's request as a director, officer, partner, employee or trustee of, or in a similar capacity with, another corporation, partnership, joint venture, trust or other enterprise (all such persons being referred to as an "Indemnitee"), or by reason of any action alleged to have been taken or omitted in such capacity, against all expenses (including attorneys' fees), judgments, fines and amounts paid in settlement actually and reasonably incurred in connection with such action, suit or proceeding and any appeal therefrom, if such Indemnitee acted in good faith and in a manner he or she reasonably believed to be in, or not opposed to, the Registrant's best interests, and, with respect to any criminal action or proceeding, he or she had no reasonable cause to believe his or her conduct was unlawful.

        The Registrant's certificate of incorporation also provides that the Registrant will indemnify any Indemnitee who was or is a party to an action or suit by or in the right of the Registrant to procure a judgment in its favor by reason of the fact that the Indemnitee is or was, or has agreed to become, the Registrant's director or officer, or is or was serving, or has agreed to serve, at the Registrant's request as a director, officer, partner, employee or trustee or, or in a similar capacity with, another corporation, partnership, joint venture, trust or other enterprise, or by reason of any action alleged to have been taken or omitted in such capacity, against all expenses (including attorneys' fees) and, to the extent permitted by law, amounts paid in settlement actually and reasonably incurred in connection with such action, suit or proceeding, and any appeal therefrom, if the Indemnitee acted in good faith and in a manner he or she reasonably believed to be in, or not opposed to, the Registrant's best interests, except that no indemnification shall be made with respect to any claim, issue or matter as to which such person shall have been adjudged to be liable to the Registrant, unless a court determines that, despite such adjudication but in view of all of the circumstances, he or she is entitled to indemnification of such expenses. Notwithstanding the foregoing, to the extent that any Indemnitee has been successful, on the merits or otherwise, he or she will be indemnified by the Registrant against all expenses (including attorneys' fees) actually and reasonably incurred by him or her or on his or her behalf in connection therewith. If the Registrant does not assume the defense, expenses must be advanced to an Indemnitee under certain circumstances.

        The Registrant has entered into indemnification agreements with its directors and executive officers. In general, these agreements provide that the Registrant will indemnify the director or executive officer to the fullest extent permitted by law for claims arising in his or her capacity as a director or officer of the Registrant or in connection with their service at the Registrant's request for another corporation or entity. The indemnification agreements also provide for procedures that will apply in the event that a director or executive officer makes a claim for indemnification and establish certain presumptions that are favorable to the director or executive officer.

        The Registrant maintains a general liability insurance policy which covers certain liabilities of its directors and officers arising out of claims based on acts or omissions in their capacities as directors or officers.

Item 16.    Exhibits.

Exhibit No.   Description
  1.1 * Form of Underwriting Agreement

 

1.2

 

Sales Agreement dated as of August 1, 2018 by and among the Registrant and Cowen and Company, LLC

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Exhibit No.   Description
  4.1   Restated Certificate of Incorporation of the Registrant (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 3.3 of the Registrant's Registration Statement on Form S-1, as amended (File No. 333-190643))

 

4.2

 

Amended and Restated Bylaws of the Registrant (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 3.4 of the Registrant's Registration Statement on Form S-1, as amended (File No. 333-190643))

 

4.3

 

Form of Senior Indenture

 

4.4

 

Form of Subordinated Indenture

 

4.5

 

Form of Senior Note

 

4.6

 

Form of Subordinated Note

 

4.7

*

Form of Deposit Agreement

 

4.8

*

Form of Warrant Agreement

 

4.9

*

Form of Unit Agreement

 

5.1

 

Opinion of Wilmer Cutler Pickering Hale and Dorr LLP

 

12.1

 

Calculation of Ratio of Earnings to Fixed Charges

 

23.1

 

Consent of Ernst & Young LLP, independent registered public accounting firm for the Registrant

 

23.2

 

Consent of Wilmer Cutler Pickering Hale and Dorr LLP (included in Exhibit 5.1)

 

24.1

 

Powers of Attorney (included in the signature pages to the Registration Statement)

 

25.1

**

Statement of Eligibility on Form T-1 under the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, as amended, of the Trustee under the Senior Indenture

 

25.2

**

Statement of Eligibility on Form T-1 under the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, as amended, of the Trustee under the Subordinated Indenture

*
To be filed by amendment or by a Current Report on Form 8-K.

**
To be filed pursuant to Section 305(b)(2) of the Trust Indenture Act of 1939.

Item 17.    Undertakings.

        The undersigned Registrant hereby undertakes:

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SIGNATURES

        Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, the Registrant certifies that it has reasonable grounds to believe that it meets all of the requirements for filing on Form S-3 and has duly caused this Registration Statement to be signed on its behalf by the undersigned, thereunto duly authorized, in the city of New York, State of New York, on August 1, 2018.

    OPHTHOTECH CORPORATION

 

 

By:

 

/s/ GLENN P. SBLENDORIO

        Name:   Glenn P. Sblendorio
        Title:   Chief Executive Officer and President


SIGNATURES AND POWER OF ATTORNEY

        We, the undersigned officers and directors of Ophthotech Corporation hereby severally constitute and appoint Glenn P. Sblendorio and David F. Carroll, and each of them singly, our true and lawful attorneys with full power to any of them, and to each of them singly, to sign for us and in our names in the capacities indicated below the Registration Statement on Form S-3 filed herewith and any and all amendments (including post-effective amendments) to said Registration Statement, and any registration statement filed pursuant to Rule 462 under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, in connection with said Registration Statement, and to file or cause to be filed the same, with all exhibits thereto and other documents in connection therewith, with the Securities and Exchange Commission, and generally to do all such things in our name and on our behalf in our capacities as officers and directors to enable Ophthotech Corporation to comply with the provisions of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, and all requirements of the Securities and Exchange Commission, hereby ratifying and confirming all that said attorneys, and each of them, or their substitute or substitutes, shall do or cause to be done by virtue hereof.

        Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, this Registration Statement has been signed by the following persons in the capacities and on the dates indicated.

Signature
 
Title
 
Date

 

 

 

 

 
/s/ GLENN P. SBLENDORIO

Glenn P. Sblendorio
  Chief Executive Officer and President and Director (Principal Executive Officer)   August 1, 2018

/s/ DAVID F. CARROLL

David F. Carroll

 

Senior Vice President, Chief Financial Officer and Treasurer (Principal Financial and Accounting Officer)

 

August 1, 2018

/s/ DAVID R. GUYER

David R. Guyer, M.D.

 

Executive Chairman

 

August 1, 2018

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Signature
 
Title
 
Date

 

 

 

 

 
/s/ AXEL BOLTE

Axel Bolte
  Director   August 1, 2018

/s/ THOMAS DYRBERG

Thomas Dyrberg, M.D., D.M.Sc

 

Director

 

August 1, 2018

/s/ JANE P. HENDERSON

Jane P. Henderson

 

Director

 

August 1, 2018

/s/ DAVID E. REDLICK

David E. Redlick

 

Director

 

August 1, 2018

/s/ MICHAEL J. ROSS

Michael J. Ross, Ph.D.

 

Director

 

August 1, 2018

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Exhibit 1.2

 

OPHTHOTECH CORPORATION

 

$50,000,000

 

COMMON STOCK

 

SALES AGREEMENT

 

August 1, 2018

 

Cowen and Company, LLC

599 Lexington Avenue

New York, NY 10022

 

Ladies and Gentlemen:

 

Ophthotech Corporation, a Delaware corporation (the “Company”), confirms its agreement (this “Agreement”) with Cowen and Company, LLC (“Cowen”), as follows:

 

1.                                      Issuance and Sale of Shares.  The Company agrees that, from time to time during the term of this Agreement, on the terms and subject to the conditions set forth herein, it may issue and sell through Cowen, acting as agent and/or principal, shares (the “Placement Shares”) of the Company’s common stock, par value $0.001 per share (the “Common Stock”), having an aggregate offering price of up to $50,000,000.  Notwithstanding anything to the contrary contained herein, the parties hereto agree that compliance with the limitation set forth in this Section 1 on the number of shares of Common Stock issued and sold under this Agreement shall be the sole responsibility of the Company, and Cowen shall have no obligation in connection with such compliance.  The issuance and sale of the Placement Shares through Cowen will be effected pursuant to the Registration Statement (as defined below) being filed by the Company and which will be declared effective by the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “Commission”), although nothing in this Agreement shall be construed as requiring the Company to use the Registration Statement (as defined below) to issue the Placement Shares.

 

The Company has filed, or will file, in accordance with the provisions of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, and the rules and regulations thereunder (collectively, the “Securities Act”), with the Commission a registration statement on Form S-3, including a base prospectus, relating to certain securities, including the Common Stock, to be issued from time to time by the Company, and a sales agreement prospectus (the “Sales Agreement Prospectus”) specifically relating to the Placement Shares, each of which incorporates by reference documents that the Company has filed or will file in accordance with the provisions of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, and the rules and regulations thereunder (collectively, the “Exchange Act”).  The Company has furnished, or will furnish, to Cowen, for use by Cowen, copies of the Sales Agreement Prospectus included as part of such registration statement, relating to the Placement Shares.  Except where the context otherwise requires, such registration statement, as amended when it first becomes or became effective, including all documents filed as part thereof or incorporated by reference therein, and including any information contained in a Prospectus (as defined below) subsequently filed with the Commission pursuant to Rule 424(b) under the Securities Act or deemed to be a part of such registration statement pursuant to Rule 430B or

 



 

462(b) of the Securities Act, is herein called the “Registration Statement.”  The Sales Agreement Prospectus, including all documents incorporated therein by reference, included in the Registration Statement, as it may be supplemented by any prospectus supplement, in the form in which such Sales Agreement Prospectus and/or any prospectus supplement have most recently been filed by the Company with the Commission pursuant to Rule 424(b) under the Securities Act, together with any “issuer free writing prospectus,” as defined in Rule 433 of the Securities Act regulations (“Rule 433”), relating to the Placement Shares that (i) is required to be filed with the Commission by the Company or (ii) is exempt from filing pursuant to Rule 433(d)(5)(i), in each case in the form filed or required to be filed with the Commission or, if not required to be filed, in the form retained in the Company’s records pursuant to Rule 433(g), is herein called the “Prospectus.” Any reference herein to the Registration Statement, the Prospectus or any amendment or supplement thereto shall be deemed to refer to and include the documents incorporated by reference therein, and any reference herein to the terms “amend,” “amendment” or “supplement” with respect to the Registration Statement or the Prospectus shall be deemed to refer to and include the filing after the execution hereof of any document with the Commission deemed to be incorporated by reference therein.  For purposes of this Agreement, all references to the Registration Statement, the Prospectus or to any amendment or supplement thereto shall be deemed to include any copy filed with the Commission pursuant to the Electronic Data Gathering Analysis and Retrieval System or any successor thereto (“EDGAR”).

 

2.                                      Placements.  Each time that the Company wishes to issue and sell any Placement Shares hereunder (each, a “Placement”), it will notify Cowen by email notice (or other method mutually agreed to in writing by the parties) (a “Placement Notice”) containing the parameters in accordance with which it desires such Placement Shares to be sold, which shall at a minimum include the number of Placement Shares to be sold, the time period during which sales are requested to be made, any limitation on the number of Placement Shares that may be sold in any one Trading Day (as defined in Section 3) and any minimum price below which sales may not be made, a form of which containing such minimum sales parameters necessary is attached hereto as Schedule 1.  The Placement Notice shall originate from any of the individuals from the Company set forth on Schedule 2 attached hereto (with a copy to each of the other individuals from the Company listed on such schedule), and shall be addressed to each of the individuals from Cowen set forth on Schedule 2, as such Schedule 2 may be amended in writing from time to time.  The Placement Notice shall be effective upon receipt by Cowen unless and until (i) in accordance with the notice requirements set forth in Section 4, Cowen declines to accept the terms contained therein for any reason, in its sole discretion, (ii) the entire amount of the applicable number of Placement Shares have been sold, (iii) in accordance with the notice requirements set forth in Section 4, the Company suspends or terminates the Placement Notice for any reason, in its sole discretion, (iv) the Company issues a subsequent Placement Notice with parameters superseding those on the earlier dated Placement Notice, or (v) this Agreement has been terminated under the provisions of Section 11.  The amount of any discount, commission or other compensation to be paid by the Company to Cowen in connection with the sale of the Placement Shares shall be calculated in accordance with the terms set forth in Schedule 3.  It is expressly acknowledged and agreed that neither the Company nor Cowen will have any obligation whatsoever with respect to a Placement or any Placement Shares unless and until the Company delivers a Placement Notice to Cowen and Cowen does not decline such Placement Notice pursuant to the terms set forth above, and then only upon the terms specified

 

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therein and herein.  In the event of a conflict between the terms of this Agreement and the terms of a Placement Notice, the terms of the Placement Notice will control.

 

3.                                      Sale of Placement Shares by Cowen.  Subject to the terms and conditions herein set forth, upon the Company’s delivery of a Placement Notice, and unless the sale of the Placement Shares described therein has been declined, suspended, or otherwise terminated in accordance with the terms of this Agreement, Cowen, for the period specified in the Placement Notice, will use its commercially reasonable efforts consistent with its normal trading and sales practices and applicable state and federal laws, rules and regulations and the rules of the Nasdaq Stock Market, Inc. (“Nasdaq”) to sell such Placement Shares up to the amount specified in such Placement Notice, and otherwise in accordance with the terms of such Placement Notice.  Cowen will provide written confirmation to the Company (including by email correspondence to each of the individuals of the Company set forth on Schedule 2, if receipt of such correspondence is actually acknowledged by any of the individuals to whom the notice is sent, other than via auto-reply) no later than the opening of the Trading Day (as defined below) immediately following the Trading Day on which it has made sales of Placement Shares hereunder setting forth the number of Placement Shares sold on such day, the volume-weighted average price of the Placement Shares sold, and the Net Proceeds (as defined below) payable to the Company.  Subject to the terms of a Placement Notice, Cowen may sell Placement Shares by any method permitted by law deemed to be an “at the market” offering as defined in Rule 415 of the Securities Act, including without limitation sales made through Nasdaq or on any other existing trading market for the Common Stock.  Notwithstanding the provisions of Section 6(ii), Cowen shall not purchase Placement Shares for its own account as principal unless expressly authorized to do so by the Company in a Placement Notice.  The Company acknowledges and agrees that (i) there can be no assurance that Cowen will be successful in selling Placement Shares, and (ii) Cowen will incur no liability or obligation to the Company or any other person or entity if it does not sell Placement Shares for any reason other than a failure by Cowen to use its commercially reasonable efforts consistent with its normal trading and sales practices to sell such Placement Shares as required under this Section 3.  For the purposes hereof, “Trading Day” means any day on which the Company’s Common Stock is purchased and sold on the principal market on which the Common Stock is listed or quoted.

 

4.                                      Suspension of Sales.

 

(a)                           The Company or Cowen may, upon notice to the other party in writing (including by email correspondence to each of the individuals of the other party set forth on Schedule 2, if receipt of such correspondence is actually acknowledged by any of the individuals to whom the notice is sent, other than via auto-reply) or by telephone (confirmed immediately by verifiable facsimile transmission or email correspondence to each of the individuals of the other party set forth on Schedule 2), suspend any sale of Placement Shares; provided, however, that such suspension shall not affect or impair either party’s obligations with respect to any Placement Shares sold hereunder prior to the receipt of such notice.  Each of the parties agrees that no such notice under this Section 4 shall be effective against the other unless it is made to one of the individuals named on Schedule 2 hereto, as such schedule may be amended from time to time.

 

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(b)                           Notwithstanding any other provision of this Agreement, during any period in which the Company is in possession of material non-public information, the Company and Cowen agree that (i) no sale of Placement Shares will take place, (ii) the Company shall not request the sale of any Placement Shares, and (iii) Cowen shall not be obligated to sell or offer to sell any Placement Shares.

 

(c)                            Notwithstanding any other provision of this Agreement, during any period in which the Registration Statement is not effective under the Securities Act, the Company shall promptly notify Cowen, the Company shall not request the sale of any Placement Shares, and Cowen shall not be obligated to sell or offer to sell any Placement Shares.

 

5.                                      Settlement.

 

(a)                                                   Settlement of Placement Shares.  Unless otherwise specified in the applicable Placement Notice, settlement for sales of Placement Shares will occur on the second (2nd) Trading Day (or such earlier day as is industry practice for regular-way trading) following the date on which such sales are made (each, a “Settlement Date” and the first such settlement date, the “First Delivery Date”).  The amount of proceeds to be delivered to the Company on a Settlement Date against receipt of the Placement Shares sold (the “Net Proceeds”) will be equal to the aggregate sales price received by Cowen at which such Placement Shares were sold, after deduction for (i) Cowen’s commission, discount or other compensation for such sales payable by the Company pursuant to Section 2 hereof, (ii) any other amounts due and payable by the Company to Cowen hereunder pursuant to Section 7(g) (Expenses) hereof, and (iii) any transaction fees imposed by any governmental or self-regulatory organization in respect of such sales.

 

(b)                                                   Delivery of Placement Shares.  On or before each Settlement Date, the Company will, or will cause its transfer agent to, electronically transfer the Placement Shares being sold by crediting Cowen’s or its designee’s account (provided that Cowen shall have given the Company written notice of such designee at least one Trading Day prior to the Settlement Date) at The Depository Trust Company through its Deposit and Withdrawal at Custodian System or by such other means of delivery as may be mutually agreed upon by the parties hereto which in all cases shall be freely tradeable, transferable, registered shares in good deliverable form.  On each Settlement Date, Cowen will deliver the related Net Proceeds in same-day funds to an account designated by the Company on, or prior to, the Settlement Date.  The Company agrees that if the Company, or its transfer agent (if applicable), defaults in its obligation to deliver duly authorized Placement Shares on a Settlement Date through no fault of Cowen, the Company agrees that in addition to and in no way limiting the rights and obligations set forth in Section 9(a) (Indemnification and Contribution) hereto, it will (i) hold Cowen harmless against any loss, claim, damage, or reasonable documented expense (including reasonable documented legal fees and expenses), as incurred, arising out of or in connection with such default by the Company and (ii) pay to Cowen any commission, discount, or other compensation to which it would otherwise have been entitled absent such default.

 

6.                                      Representations and Warranties of the Company.  The Company represents and warrants to, and agrees with, Cowen that, unless such representation, warranty or agreement

 

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specifies otherwise, as of the date of this Agreement, each Representation Date (as defined in Section 7(m)), and as of each Applicable Time (as defined in Section 20(a)):

 

(a)                                                   Compliance with Registration Requirements.  As of each Applicable Time other than the date of this Agreement, the Registration Statement and any Rule 462(b) Registration Statement have been declared effective by the Commission under the Securities Act.  The Company shall have complied to the Commission’s satisfaction with all requests of the Commission for additional or supplemental information.  No stop order suspending the effectiveness of the Registration Statement or any Rule 462(b) Registration Statement is in effect and no proceedings for such purpose have been instituted or are pending or, to the best knowledge of the Company, contemplated or threatened by the Commission.  The Company meets the requirements for use of Form S-3 under the Securities Act.  The sale of the Placement Shares hereunder meets the requirements of General Instruction I.B.1 of Form S-3.

 

(b)                                                   No Misstatement or Omission.  The Prospectus when filed will comply or complied and, as amended or supplemented, if applicable, will comply in all material respects with the Securities Act.  Each of the Registration Statement, any Rule 462(b) Registration Statement, the Prospectus and any post-effective amendments or supplements thereto, at the time it becomes effective or its date, as applicable, complied and as of each of the Settlement Dates, if any, complied in all material respects with the Securities Act and did not and, as of each Settlement Date, if any, did not and will not contain any untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state a material fact required to be stated therein or necessary to make the statements therein not misleading.  The Prospectus, as amended or supplemented, as of its date, did not and, as of each of the Settlement Dates, if any, will not contain any untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state a material fact necessary in order to make the statements therein, in the light of the circumstances under which they were made, not misleading.  The representations and warranties set forth in the two immediately preceding sentences do not apply to statements in or omissions from the Registration Statement, any Rule 462(b) Registration Statement, or any post-effective amendment thereto, or the Prospectus, or any amendments or supplements thereto, made in reliance upon and in conformity with information relating to Cowen furnished to the Company in writing by Cowen expressly for use therein.  There are no contracts or other documents required to be described in the Prospectus or to be filed as exhibits to the Registration Statement which have not been described or filed as required.

 

(c)                                                    Offering Materials Furnished to Cowen.  The Company has delivered to Cowen one complete copy of the Registration Statement and a copy of each consent and certificate of experts filed as a part thereof, and conformed copies of the Registration Statement (without exhibits) and the Prospectus, as amended or supplemented, in such quantities and at such places as Cowen has reasonably requested.

 

(d)                                                   Not an Ineligible Issuer.  The Company currently is not an “ineligible issuer,” as defined in Rule 405 of the rules and regulation of the Commission.  The Company agrees to notify Cowen promptly upon the Company becoming an “ineligible issuer.”

 

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(e)                                                    Due Incorporation. The Company has been duly incorporated, is validly existing as a corporation in good standing under the laws of the State of Delaware, has the corporate power and authority to own its property and to conduct its business as described in the Time of Sale Prospectus and is duly qualified to transact business and is in good standing in each jurisdiction in which the conduct of its business or its ownership or leasing of property requires such qualification, except to the extent that the failure to be so qualified or be in good standing would not have a material adverse effect on the Company.

 

(f)                                                     Subsidiaries. The Company has no subsidiaries, except as disclosed in the Company’s reports filed with the Commission.

 

(g)                                                    Distribution of Offering Material by the Company.  The Company has not distributed and will not distribute, prior to the completion of Cowen’s distribution of the Placement Shares, any offering material in connection with the offering and sale of the Placement Shares other than the Prospectus or the Registration Statement.

 

(h)                                                   The Sales Agreement.  This Agreement has been duly authorized, executed and delivered by, and is a valid and binding agreement of, the Company, enforceable in accordance with its terms, except as rights to indemnification and contribution hereunder may be limited by applicable law and except as the enforcement hereof may be limited by bankruptcy, insolvency, reorganization, moratorium or other similar laws relating to or affecting the rights and remedies of creditors or by general equitable principles.

 

(i)                                                       Authorization of the Placement Shares.  The Placement Shares, when issued and delivered, will be duly authorized for issuance and sale pursuant to this Agreement and, when issued and delivered by the Company against payment therefor pursuant to this Agreement, will be duly authorized, validly issued, fully paid and nonassessable, and the issuance of such Placement Shares will not be subject to any preemptive or similar rights that have not been validly waived.

 

(j)                                                      No Applicable Registration or Other Similar Rights.  There are no persons with registration or other similar rights to have any equity or debt securities registered for sale under the Registration Statement or included in the offering contemplated by this Agreement.

 

(k)                                                   No Material Adverse Change.  Except as otherwise disclosed in the Prospectus, subsequent to the respective dates as of which information is given in the Prospectus: (i) there has been no material adverse change, or any development that could reasonably be expected to result in a material adverse change, in the condition, financial or otherwise, or in the earnings, business, operations or prospects, of the Company and its subsidiaries, taken as a whole (any such change is called a “Material Adverse Change”); (ii) the Company has not incurred any material liability or obligation, indirect, direct or contingent, or have entered into any material transactions not in the ordinary course of business; and (iii) there has not been any material decrease in the capital stock or any material increase in any short-term or long-term indebtedness of the Company and there has been no dividend or distribution of any kind declared, paid or made by the Company or,

 

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except for dividends paid to the Company or any repurchase or redemption by the Company of any class of capital stock.

 

(l)                                                       Independent Accountants.  Ernst & Young LLP, who has expressed its opinion with respect to the financial statements (which term as used in this Agreement includes the related notes thereto) and supporting schedules filed with the Commission or incorporated by reference as a part of the Registration Statement and included in the Prospectus, is an independent registered public accounting firm as required by the Securities Act and the Exchange Act.

 

(m)                                               Preparation of the Financial Statements.  The Company’s financial statements filed with the Commission as a part of or incorporated within the Registration Statement  and the Prospectus (collectively, the “Financial Statements”) have been prepared in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles applied on a consistent basis throughout the periods indicated, except that the unaudited Financial Statements may not contain all footnotes required by generally accepted accounting principles.  The Financial Statements are consistent with the books and records of the Company (which books and records are accurate and complete in all material respects) and fairly present in all material respects the financial condition and operating results of the Company as of the dates, and for the periods, indicated therein, subject in the case of the unaudited Financial Statements to normal year-end audit adjustments.  Except as set forth in the Financial Statements, the Company has no material liabilities or obligations, contingent or otherwise, other than (i) liabilities incurred in the ordinary course of business subsequent to June 30, 2018, (ii) liabilities incurred subsequent to June 30, 2018 that are disclosed in the Company’s reports filed with the Commission, (iii) obligations under contracts and commitments incurred in the ordinary course of business and (iv) liabilities and obligations of a type or nature not required under generally accepted accounting principles to be reflected in the Financial Statements, which, in all such cases, individually and in the aggregate would not have a material adverse effect on the Company.  The Company maintains and will continue to maintain a standard system of accounting established and administered in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles.  The financial data set forth or incorporated in the Prospectus under the captions “Ratio of Earnings to Fixed Charges” and “Selected Financial Data” fairly present the information set forth therein on a basis consistent with that of the audited financial statements contained, incorporated or deemed to be incorporated in the Registration Statement.  The interactive data in eXtensible Business Reporting Language included or incorporated by reference in the Registration Statement fairly presents the information called for in all material respects and has been prepared in accordance with the Commission’s rules and guidelines applicable thereto.

 

(n)                                                   Capital Stock Matters.  The Common Stock conforms in all material respects to the description thereof contained in the Prospectus.  All of the issued and outstanding shares of Common Stock have been duly authorized and validly issued, are fully paid and nonassessable and have been issued in compliance with federal and state securities laws.  None of the outstanding shares of Common Stock were issued in violation of any preemptive rights, rights of first refusal or other similar rights to subscribe for or purchase securities of the Company.  There are no authorized or outstanding options, warrants,

 

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preemptive rights, rights of first refusal or other rights to purchase, or equity or debt securities convertible into or exchangeable or exercisable for, any capital stock of the Company other than those accurately described in all material respects in, or contemplated by, the Prospectus.  The description of the Company’s stock option, stock bonus and other stock plans or arrangements, and the options or other rights granted thereunder, set forth in the Prospectus accurately and fairly presents in all material respects the information required to be shown with respect to such plans, arrangements, options and rights.

 

(o)                                                   Non-Contravention of Existing Instruments; No Further Authorizations or Approvals Required.  The Company is not in violation or default (i) of any provisions of the Company’s certificate of incorporation or bylaws, (ii) of any judgment, order, writ or decree of any court, governmental body or arbitrator, (iii) under any note, indenture or mortgage, or (iv) under any lease, agreement, contract or purchase order to which it is a party or by which it is bound, or, of any provision of federal or state statute, rule or regulation applicable to the Company, in the case of clauses (iii) and (iv), the violation of which would have a material adverse effect on the Company.  The execution and delivery by the Company of, and the performance by the Company of its obligations under, this Agreement will not contravene any provision of applicable law or the certificate of incorporation or by-laws of the Company or any agreement or other instrument binding upon the Company that is material to the Company, or any judgment, order or decree of any governmental body, agency or court having jurisdiction over the Company, and no consent, approval, authorization or order of, or qualification with, any governmental body or agency is required for the performance by the Company of its obligations under this Agreement, except such as have already been obtained or made or as may be required by the securities or Blue Sky laws of the various states in connection with the offer and sale of the Placement Shares.

 

(p)                                                   No Material Actions or Proceedings.  There are no legal or governmental proceedings pending or threatened to which the Company is a party or to which any of the properties of the Company is subject (i) other than proceedings accurately described in all material respects in the Prospectus and proceedings that would not have a material adverse effect on the Company or on the power or ability of the Company to perform its obligations under this Agreement or to consummate the transactions contemplated by the Prospectus or (ii) that are required to be described in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus and are not so described; and there are no statutes, regulations, contracts or other documents that are required to be described in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus or to be filed as exhibits to the Prospectus that are not described or filed as required.

 

(q)                                                   Tax Law Compliance.  The Company has filed all federal, state, local and foreign tax returns required to be filed through the date of this Agreement or have requested extensions thereof (except where the failure to file would not, individually or in the aggregate, have a material adverse effect) and have paid all taxes required to be paid thereon (except for cases in which the failure to file or pay would not have a material adverse effect on the Company or, except as currently being contested in good faith and for which reserves required by U.S. GAAP have been created in the financial statements of the Company), and no tax deficiency has been determined adversely to the Company which has had (nor does the Company have any notice or knowledge of any tax deficiency which could reasonably

 

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be expected to be determined adversely to the Company and which would reasonably be expected to have) a material adverse effect on the Company.

 

(r)                                                      Company Not an “Investment Company”.  The Company has been advised of the rules and requirements under the Investment Company Act of 1940, as amended (the “Investment Company Act”).  The Company is not, and after receipt of payment for the Common Stock will not be, an “investment company” within the meaning of Investment Company Act.

 

(s)                                                     Insurance.  Except as disclosed in the Prospectus, the Company is insured by insurers of recognized financial responsibility against such losses and risks and in such amounts as are prudent and customary in the business in which it is engaged; the Company has not been refused any insurance coverage sought or applied for; and the Company does not have any reason to believe that it will not be able to renew its existing insurance coverage as and when such coverage expires or to obtain similar coverage from similar insurers as may be necessary to continue its business at a cost that would not have a material adverse effect on the Company.

 

(t)                                                      No Price Stabilization or Manipulation.  The Company has not taken and will not take, directly or indirectly, any action designed to or that would be reasonably expected to cause or result in stabilization or manipulation of the price of any security of the Company to facilitate the sale or resale of the Placement Shares.

 

(u)                                                   Related Party Transactions.  There are no business relationships or related-party transactions involving the Company or any subsidiary or any other person required to be described in the Prospectus which have not been described as required.

 

(v)                                                   Exchange Act Compliance.  The documents incorporated or deemed to be incorporated by reference in the Prospectus, at the time they were or hereafter are filed with the Commission, complied and will comply in all material respects with the requirements of the Exchange Act, and, when read together with the other information in the Prospectus, at the Settlement Dates, will not contain an untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state a material fact required to be stated therein or necessary to make the fact required to be stated therein or necessary to make the statements therein, in the light of the circumstances under which they were made, not misleading.

 

(w)                                                 No Unlawful Contributions or Other Payments.  Neither the Company nor, to the Company’s knowledge, any of its affiliates, any director, officer, or employee of the Company, or any agent or representative of the Company or of any of its affiliates, has taken or will take any action in furtherance of an offer, payment, promise to pay, or authorization or approval of the payment or giving of money, property, gifts or anything else of value, directly or indirectly, to any “government official” (including any officer or employee of a government or government-owned or controlled entity or of a public international organization, or any person acting in an official capacity for or on behalf of any of the foregoing, or any political party or party official or candidate for political office) to influence official action or secure an improper advantage; and the Company and, to the Company’s knowledge, its affiliates have conducted their businesses in compliance with

 

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applicable anti-corruption laws and have instituted and maintain and will continue to maintain policies and procedures designed to promote and achieve compliance with such laws and with the representation and warranty contained herein.

 

(x)                                                   Compliance with Money Laundering Laws.  The operations of the Company are and have been conducted at all times in material compliance with all applicable financial recordkeeping and reporting requirements, including those of the Bank Secrecy Act, as amended by Title III of the Uniting and Strengthening America by Providing Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism Act of 2001 (USA PATRIOT Act), and the applicable anti-money laundering statutes of jurisdictions where the Company conducts business, the rules and regulations thereunder and any related or similar rules, regulations or guidelines, issued, administered or enforced by any governmental agency (collectively, the “Anti-Money Laundering Laws”), and no action, suit or proceeding by or before any court or governmental agency, authority or body or any arbitrator involving the Company with respect to the Anti-Money Laundering Laws is pending or, to the best knowledge of the Company, threatened.

 

(y)                                                   Compliance with OFAC.

 

(i)                         Neither the Company nor, to the Company’s knowledge, any director, officer, or employee of the Company or any agent, affiliate or representative of the Company, is an individual or entity (“Person”) that is, or is owned or controlled by a Person that is:

 

(A)                               the subject of any sanctions administered or enforced by the U.S. Department of Treasury’s Office of Foreign Assets Control (“OFAC”), the United Nations Security Council (“UNSC”), the European Union (“EU”), Her Majesty’s Treasury (“HMT”), or other relevant sanctions authority (collectively, “Sanctions”), nor

 

(B)                               located, organized or resident in a country or territory that is the subject of Sanctions (including, without limitation, Cuba, Crimea, Iran, North Korea and Syria).

 

(ii)                      The Company will not, directly or indirectly, use the proceeds of the offering, or lend, contribute or otherwise make available such proceeds to any subsidiary, joint venture partner or other Person:

 

(A)                               to fund or facilitate any activities or business of or with any Person or in any country or territory that, at the time of such funding or facilitation, is the subject of Sanctions; or

 

(B)                               in any other manner that will result in a violation of Sanctions by any Person (including Cowen)

 

(iii)                   For the past five (5) years, the Company has not knowingly engaged in, is not now knowingly engaged in, and will not engage in, any dealings or transactions

 

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with any Person, or in any country or territory, that at the time of the dealing or transaction is or was the subject of Sanctions.

 

(z)                                                    Company’s Accounting System.  The Company has established a system of internal accounting controls sufficient to provide reasonable assurance that (i) transactions are executed in accordance with management’s general or specific authorizations; (ii) transactions are recorded as necessary to permit preparation of financial statements in conformity with generally accepted accounting principles and to maintain asset accountability; (iii) access to assets is permitted only in accordance with management’s general or specific authorization; (iv) the recorded accountability for assets is compared with the existing assets at reasonable intervals and appropriate action is taken with respect to any differences; and (v) the interactive data in eXtensible Business Reporting Language included or incorporated by reference in the Registration Statement is accurate.  Except as described in the Prospectus, since the end of the Company’s most recent audited fiscal year, there has been (i) no material weakness in the Company’s internal control over financial reporting (whether or not remediated) and (ii) no change in the Company’s internal control over financial reporting that has materially affected, or is reasonably likely to materially affect, the Company’s internal control over financial reporting.

 

(aa)                                            Disclosure Controls.  The Company maintains an effective system of “disclosure controls and procedures” (as defined in Rule 13a-15(e) of the Exchange Act) that complies with the requirements of the Exchange Act and that has been designed to ensure that information required to be disclosed by the Company in reports that it files or submits under the Exchange Act is recorded, processed, summarized and reported within the time periods specified in the Commission’s rules and forms, including controls and procedures designed to ensure that such information is accumulated and communicated to the Company’s management as appropriate to allow timely decisions regarding required disclosure.  The Company has carried out evaluations of the effectiveness of its disclosure controls and procedures as required by Rule 13a-15 of the Exchange Act.

 

(bb)                                            Compliance with Environmental Laws.  The Company (i) is in compliance with any and all applicable foreign, federal, state and local laws and regulations relating to the protection of human health and safety, the environment or hazardous or toxic substances or wastes, pollutants or contaminants (“Environmental Laws”), (ii) has received all permits, licenses or other approvals required of it under applicable Environmental Laws to conduct its business and (iii) is in compliance with all terms and conditions of any such permit, license or approval, except where such noncompliance with Environmental Laws, failure to receive required permits, licenses or other approvals or failure to comply with the terms and conditions of such permits, licenses or approvals would not, singly or in the aggregate, have a material adverse effect on the Company.  There are no costs or liabilities associated with Environmental Laws (including, without limitation, any capital or operating expenditures required for clean-up, closure of properties or compliance with Environmental Laws or any permit, license or approval, any related constraints on operating activities and any potential liabilities to third parties) which would, singly or in the aggregate, have a material adverse effect on the Company.

 

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(cc)                                              Real and Personal Property.  The Company has good title in fee simple (in the case of real property) to all personal and real property owned by it which is material to the business of the Company free and clear of all liens, encumbrances and defects except such as are described in the Prospectus or such as do not materially affect the value of such property and do not materially interfere with the use made and proposed to be made of such property by the Company; and any real property and buildings held under lease by the Company are held by them under valid, subsisting and enforceable leases with such exceptions as are not material and do not materially interfere with the use made and proposed to be made of such property and buildings by the Company, in each case except as described in the Prospectus.

 

(dd)                                            Intellectual Property.  Except as described in the Prospectus, the Company owns or possesses, or can acquire on reasonable terms, adequate rights to all patents, patent rights, inventions, trademarks, service marks, trade names, domain names, goodwill associated with the foregoing, copyrights, licenses and know-how (including trade secrets and other unpatented and/or unpatentable proprietary or confidential information, systems or procedures) and other intellectual property rights, including registrations and applications for registration thereof (collectively, “Intellectual Property”) necessary for the conduct of the business of the Company in all material respects as currently conducted and as proposed to be conducted, and, to the knowledge of the Company, the conduct of the business of the Company has not conflicted with, infringed, misappropriated or otherwise violated, and will not conflict with, infringe, misappropriate or otherwise violate, any Intellectual Property of any third party in any material respect.  Except as described in the Prospectus, the Company has not received any written notice of, and is not otherwise aware of, any pending or threatened claim of infringement, misappropriation or other violation of any Intellectual Property of any third party or any written notice challenging the validity, scope or enforceability of their respective Intellectual Property or rights therein, in each case which, individually or in the aggregate, would reasonably be expected to have a material adverse effect on the Company.  The Company is not aware of any specific facts or combination of facts that would support a finding that any of the material issued or granted patents owned by or licensed to the Company is invalid or unenforceable and, to the knowledge of the Company, all such issued or granted patents are valid and enforceable.

 

(ee)                                              Listing.  The Company is subject to and in compliance in all material respects with the reporting requirements of Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Exchange Act.  The Common Stock is registered pursuant to Section 12(b) or Section 12(g) of the Exchange Act and is listed on the Nasdaq, and the Company has taken no action designed to, or reasonably likely to have the effect of, terminating the registration of the Common Stock under the Exchange Act or delisting the Common Stock from Nasdaq, nor has the Company received any notification that the Commission or Nasdaq is contemplating terminating such registration or listing.

 

(ff)                                                Brokers.  Except for Cowen, there is no broker, finder or other party that is entitled to receive from the Company any brokerage or finder’s fee or other fee or commission as a result of any transactions contemplated by this Agreement.

 

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(gg)                                              No Outstanding Loans or Other Indebtedness.  Except as described in the Prospectus, there are no outstanding loans, advances (except normal advances for business expenses in the ordinary course of business) or guarantees or indebtedness by the Company to or for the benefit of any of the officers or directors of the Company or any of the members of any of them.

 

(hh)                                            No Reliance.  The Company has not relied upon Cowen or legal counsel for Cowen for any legal, tax or accounting advice in connection with the offering and sale of the Placement Shares.

 

(ii)                                                    Cowen Purchases.  The Company acknowledges and agrees that Cowen has informed the Company that Cowen may, to the extent permitted under the Securities Act and the Exchange Act, purchase and sell shares of Common Stock for its own account while this Agreement is in effect.

 

(jj)                                                  Regulatory Compliance.  The Company possesses all certificates, authorizations and permits issued by the appropriate federal, state or foreign regulatory authorities necessary to conduct its business, and the Company has not received any notice of proceedings relating to the revocation or modification of any such certificate, authorization or permit which, singly or in the aggregate, if the subject of an unfavorable decision, ruling or finding, would have a material adverse effect on the Company, except as described in the Prospectus.  Except as described in the Prospectus the Company (i) is, and at all times has been, in compliance with all statutes, rules and regulations applicable to the ownership, testing, development, manufacture, packaging, processing, use, distribution, storage, import, export or disposal of any product manufactured or distributed by the Company (“Applicable Regulatory Laws”), except where such noncompliance would not, individually or in the aggregate, reasonably be expected to have a material adverse effect on the Company; and (ii) has not received any U.S. Food and Drug Administration (“FDA”) Form 483, written notice of adverse finding, warning letter, untitled letter or other correspondence or written notice from any court or arbitrator or governmental or regulatory authority alleging or asserting non-compliance with (x) any Applicable Regulatory Laws or (y) any licenses, exemptions, certificates, approvals, clearances, authorizations, permits and supplements or amendments thereto required by any such Applicable Regulatory Laws.

 

(kk)                                            Clinical Trials.  (i) The clinical and pre-clinical trials conducted by or, to the knowledge of the Company, on behalf of or sponsored by the Company, or in which the Company has participated, that are described in the Prospectus, or the results of which are referred to in the Prospectus, as applicable, were, and if still pending are, being conducted in all material respects in accordance with standard medical and scientific research standards and procedures for products or product candidates comparable to those being developed by the Company and all applicable statutes and all applicable rules and regulations of the FDA and comparable regulatory agencies outside of the United States to which they are subject, including the European Medicines Agency (collectively, the “Regulatory Authorities”), and current Good Clinical Practices and Good Laboratory Practices, as applicable; (ii) the descriptions in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus of the results of such studies and tests are accurate and complete descriptions in all material respects and fairly present the data derived therefrom; (iii) the Company has no knowledge of any other trials not

 

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described in the Prospectus, the results of which are inconsistent with or call into question the results described or referred to in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus; (iv) the Company has operated at all times and is currently in compliance in all material respects with all applicable statutes, rules and regulations of the Regulatory Authorities; and (v) except as described in the Prospectus, the Company has not received any written notices, correspondence or other communications from the Regulatory Authorities or any other governmental agency requiring or threatening the termination, material modification or suspension of any clinical or pre-clinical trials that are described in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus or the results of which are referred to in the Prospectus, other than ordinary course communications with respect to modifications in connection with the design and implementation of such trials, and, to the Company’s knowledge, there are no reasonable grounds for the same.

 

(ll)                                                    Regulatory Filings.  The Company has not failed to file with the Regulatory Authorities any required filing, declaration, listing, registration, report or submission with respect to the Company’s product candidates that are described or referred to in the Prospectus; all such filings, declarations, listings, registrations, reports or submissions were in material compliance with applicable laws when filed; and no deficiencies regarding compliance with applicable law have been asserted by any applicable regulatory authority with respect to any such filings, declarations, listings, registrations, reports or submissions.

 

(mm)                                    Labor Disputes.  No material labor dispute with the employees of the Company exists, except as described in the Prospectus, or, to the knowledge of the Company, is imminent; and the Company is not aware of any existing, threatened or imminent labor disturbance by the employees of any of its principal suppliers, manufacturers or contractors that could have a material adverse effect on the Company.

 

Any certificate signed by an officer of the Company and delivered to Cowen or to counsel for Cowen shall be deemed to be a representation and warranty by the Company to Cowen as to the matters set forth therein.

 

The Company acknowledges that Cowen and, for purposes of the opinions to be delivered pursuant to Section 7 hereof, counsel to the Company and counsel to Cowen, will rely upon the accuracy and truthfulness of the foregoing representations and hereby consents to such reliance.

 

7.                                      Covenants of the Company.  The Company covenants and agrees with Cowen that:

 

(a)                                                   Registration Statement Amendments.  After the date of this Agreement and during any period in which a Prospectus relating to any Placement Shares is required to be delivered by Cowen under the Securities Act (including in circumstances where such requirement may be satisfied pursuant to Rule 172 under the Securities Act), (i) the Company will notify Cowen promptly of the time when any subsequent amendment to the Registration Statement, other than documents incorporated by reference or amendments that do not name Cowen and do not relate to the transactions contemplated by this Agreement, has been filed with the Commission and/or has become

 

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effective or any subsequent supplement to the Prospectus has been filed and of any request by the Commission for any amendment or supplement to the Registration Statement or Prospectus or for additional information other than requests that do not relate to the transactions contemplated by this Agreement, (ii) the Company will prepare and file with the Commission, promptly upon Cowen’s request, any amendments or supplements to the Registration Statement or Prospectus that, in Cowen’s reasonable opinion, may be necessary or advisable in connection with the distribution of the Placement Shares by Cowen (provided, however, that the failure of Cowen to make such request shall not relieve the Company of any obligation or liability hereunder, or affect Cowen’s right to rely on the representations and warranties made by the Company in this Agreement and provided, further, that the only remedy Cowen shall have with respect to the failure by the Company to make such filing (other than Cowen’s rights under Section 9 hereof) will be to cease making sales under this Agreement until such amendment or supplement is filed); (iii) the Company will not file any amendment or supplement to the Registration Statement or Prospectus, other than documents incorporated by reference, relating to the Placement Shares or a security convertible into the Placement Shares unless a copy thereof has been submitted to Cowen within a reasonable period of time before the filing and Cowen has not reasonably objected thereto (provided, however, that the failure of Cowen to make such objection shall not relieve the Company of any obligation or liability hereunder, or affect Cowen’s right to rely on the representations and warranties made by the Company in this Agreement and provided, further, that the only remedy Cowen shall have with respect to the failure by the Company to make such filing (other than Cowen’s rights under Section 9 hereof) will be to cease making sales under this Agreement until such amendment or supplement is filed) and the Company will furnish to Cowen at the time of filing thereof a copy of any document that upon filing is deemed to be incorporated by reference into the Registration Statement or Prospectus, except for those documents available via EDGAR; (iv) the Company will cause each amendment or supplement to the Prospectus, other than documents incorporated by reference, to be filed with the Commission as required pursuant to the applicable paragraph of Rule 424(b) of the Securities Act; and (v) prior to the termination of this Agreement, the Company will notify Cowen if at any time the Registration Statement shall no longer be effective as a result of the passage of time pursuant to Rule 415 under the Securities Act or otherwise.

 

(b)                                                   Notice of Commission Stop Orders.  The Company will advise Cowen, promptly after it receives notice or obtains knowledge thereof, of the issuance or threatened issuance by the Commission of any stop order suspending the effectiveness of the Registration Statement, of the suspension of the qualification of the Placement Shares for offering or sale in any jurisdiction, or of the initiation or threatening of any proceeding for any such purpose; and it will promptly use its commercially reasonable efforts to prevent the issuance of any stop order or to obtain its withdrawal if such a stop order should be issued.

 

(c)                                                    Delivery of Prospectus; Subsequent Changes.  During any period in which a Prospectus relating to the Placement Shares is required to be delivered by Cowen under the Securities Act with respect to a pending sale of the Placement Shares, (including in circumstances where such requirement may be satisfied pursuant to Rule 172 under the Securities Act), the Company will comply with all requirements imposed upon it by the Securities Act, as from time to time in force, and to file on or before their respective due

 

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dates (taking into account any extensions available under the Exchange Act) all reports and any definitive proxy or information statements required to be filed by the Company with the Commission pursuant to Sections 13(a), 13(c), 14, 15(d) or any other provision of or under the Exchange Act.  If during such period any event occurs as a result of which the Prospectus as then amended or supplemented would include an untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state a material fact necessary to make the statements therein, in the light of the circumstances then existing, not misleading, or if during such period it is necessary to amend or supplement the Registration Statement or Prospectus to comply with the Securities Act, the Company will promptly notify Cowen to suspend the offering of Placement Shares during such period and the Company will promptly amend or supplement the Registration Statement or Prospectus (at the expense of the Company) so as to correct such statement or omission or effect such compliance; provided, however, that the Company may delay the filing of any amendment or supplement, if in the judgment of the Company, it is in the best interest of the Company.

 

(d)                                                   Listing of Placement Shares.  During any period in which the Prospectus relating to the Placement Shares is required to be delivered by Cowen under the Securities Act with respect to a pending sale of the Placement Shares (including in circumstances where such requirement may be satisfied pursuant to Rule 172 under the Securities Act), the Company will use its commercially reasonable efforts to cause the Placement Shares to be listed on Nasdaq and to qualify the Placement Shares for sale under the securities laws of such jurisdictions as Cowen reasonably designates and to continue such qualifications in effect so long as required for the distribution of the Placement Shares; provided, however, that the Company shall not be required in connection therewith to qualify as a foreign corporation or dealer in securities or file a general consent to service of process in any jurisdiction.

 

(e)                                                    Delivery of Registration Statement and Prospectus.  The Company will furnish to Cowen and its counsel (at the expense of the Company) copies of the Registration Statement, the Prospectus (including all documents incorporated by reference therein) and all amendments and supplements to the Registration Statement or Prospectus that are filed with the Commission during any period in which a Prospectus relating to the Placement Shares is required to be delivered under the Securities Act (including all documents filed with the Commission during such period that are deemed to be incorporated by reference therein), in each case as soon as reasonably practicable and in such quantities as Cowen may from time to time reasonably request and, at Cowen’s request, will also furnish copies of the Prospectus to each exchange or market on which sales of the Placement Shares may be made; provided, however, that the Company shall not be required to furnish any document (other than the Prospectus) to Cowen to the extent such document is available on EDGAR.

 

(f)                                                     Earnings Statement.  The Company will make generally available to its security holders as soon as practicable, but in any event not later than 15 months after the end of the Company’s current fiscal quarter, an earnings statement covering a 12-month period that satisfies the provisions of Section 11(a) and Rule 158 of the Securities Act.

 

(g)                                                    Expenses.  The Company, whether or not the transactions contemplated hereunder are consummated or this Agreement is terminated, in accordance with the

 

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provisions of Section 11 hereunder, will pay the following expenses all incident to the performance of its obligations hereunder, including, but not limited to, expenses relating to (i) the preparation, printing and filing of the Registration Statement and each amendment and supplement thereto, of each Prospectus and of each amendment and supplement thereto, (ii) the preparation, issuance and delivery of the Placement Shares, (iii) the qualification of the Placement Shares under securities laws in accordance with the provisions of Section 7(d) of this Agreement, including filing fees (provided, however, that any fees or disbursements of counsel for Cowen in connection therewith shall be paid by Cowen except as set forth in (vii) below), (iv) the printing and delivery to Cowen of copies of the Prospectus and any amendments or supplements thereto, and of this Agreement, (v) the fees and expenses incurred in connection with the listing or qualification of the Placement Shares for trading on Nasdaq, (vi) the filing fees and expenses, if any, of the Commission, (vii) the filing fees and associated legal expenses of Cowen’s outside counsel for filings with the FINRA Corporate Financing Department, such legal expense reimbursement not to exceed $10,000 and, (viii) the reasonable fees and disbursements of Cowen’s counsel in an amount not to exceed $100,000.

 

(h)                                                   Use of Proceeds.  The Company will use the Net Proceeds as described in the Prospectus in the section entitled “Use of Proceeds.”

 

(i)                                                       Notice of Other Sales.  During the pendency of any Placement Notice given hereunder, and for 5 (five) trading days following the termination of any Placement Notice given hereunder, the Company shall provide Cowen notice as promptly as reasonably practicable before it offers to sell, contracts to sell, sells, grants any option to sell or otherwise disposes of any shares of Common Stock (other than Placement Shares offered pursuant to the provisions of this Agreement) or securities convertible into or exchangeable for Common Stock, warrants or any rights to purchase or acquire Common Stock; provided, that such notice shall not be required in connection with the (i) issuance, grant or sale of Common Stock, options to purchase shares of Common Stock or Common Stock issuable upon the exercise of options or other equity awards pursuant to any stock option, stock bonus or other stock plan or arrangement described in the Prospectus, (ii) the issuance of securities in connection with an acquisition, merger or sale or purchase of assets or (iii) the issuance or sale of Common Stock pursuant to any dividend reinvestment plan that the Company may adopt from time to time provided the implementation of such is disclosed to Cowen in advance, (iv) the issuance of any shares of common stock issuable upon the exchange, conversion or redemption of securities or the exercise of warrants, options or other rights in effect or outstanding or (v) the issuance of Common Stock, or securities convertible into or exercisable for Common Stock, offered and sold in a privately negotiated transaction to vendors, customers, strategic partners or other investors conducted in a manner so as not to be integrated with the offering of the Placement Shares hereby.  Notwithstanding the foregoing provisions, nothing herein shall be construed to restrict the Company’s ability, or require the Company to provide notice to Cowen, to file a registration statement under the Securities Act.

 

(j)                                                      Change of Circumstances.  The Company will, at any time during a fiscal quarter in which the Company intends to tender a Placement Notice or sell Placement Shares, advise Cowen promptly after it shall have received notice or obtained knowledge

 

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thereof, of any information or fact that would alter or affect in any material respect any opinion, certificate, letter or other document provided to Cowen pursuant to this Agreement.

 

(k)                                                   Due Diligence Cooperation.  During the term of this Agreement, the Company will cooperate with any reasonable due diligence review conducted by Cowen or its agents in connection with the transactions contemplated hereby, including, without limitation, providing information and making available documents and senior corporate officers, during regular business hours and at the Company’s principal offices, as Cowen may reasonably request.

 

(l)                                                       Required Filings Relating to Placement of Placement Shares.  The Company agrees that on such dates as the Securities Act shall require, the Company will (i) file a prospectus supplement with the Commission under the applicable paragraph of Rule 424(b) under the Securities Act (each and every filing under Rule 424(b), a “Filing Date”), which prospectus supplement will set forth, within the relevant period, the amount of Placement Shares sold through Cowen, the Net Proceeds to the Company and the compensation payable by the Company to Cowen with respect to such Placement Shares, and (ii) deliver such number of copies of each such prospectus supplement to each exchange or market on which such sales were effected as may be required by the rules or regulations of such exchange or market.

 

(m)                                               Representation Dates; Certificate.  On or prior to the First Delivery Date and each time the Company (i) amends or supplements the Registration Statement or the Prospectus relating to the Placement Shares (other than a prospectus supplement filed in accordance with Section 7(l) of this Agreement) by means of a post-effective amendment, sticker, or supplement but not by means of incorporation of document(s) by reference to the Registration Statement or the Prospectus relating to the Placement Shares; (ii) files an annual report on Form 10-K under the Exchange Act; (iii) files its quarterly reports on Form 10-Q under the Exchange Act; or (iv) files a report on Form 8-K containing amended financial information (other than any information “furnished” pursuant to Items 2.02 or 7.01 of Form 8-K) under the Exchange Act (each date of filing of one or more of the documents referred to in clauses (i) through (iv) shall be a Representation Date); the Company shall furnish Cowen with a certificate, in the form attached hereto as Exhibit 7(m) within three (3) Trading Days of any Representation Date if requested by Cowen (but in the case of clause (iv), only if Cowen reasonably determinates that the information contained in such Form 8-K is material to a holder of Common Stock).  The requirement to provide a certificate under this Section 7(m) shall be waived for any Representation Date occurring at a time at which no Placement Notice is pending, which waiver shall continue until the earlier to occur of the date the Company delivers a Placement Notice hereunder (which for such calendar quarter shall be considered a Representation Date) and the next occurring Representation Date; provided, however, that such waiver shall not apply for any Representation Date on which the Company files its annual report on Form 10-K.  Notwithstanding the foregoing, if the Company subsequently decides to sell Placement Shares following a Representation Date when the Company relied on such waiver and did not provide Cowen with a certificate under this Section 7(m), then before the Company delivers the Placement Notice or Cowen sells any Placement Shares, the Company shall provide Cowen with a certificate, in the form attached hereto as Exhibit 7(m), dated the date of the Placement Notice.

 

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(n)                                                   Legal Opinion.  On or prior to the First Delivery Date and within three (3) Trading Days of each Representation Date with respect to which the Company is obligated to deliver a certificate in the form attached hereto as Exhibit 7(m) for which no waiver is applicable, the Company shall cause (i) Wilmer Cutler Pickering Hale and Dorr LLP (“Company’s Outside Counsel”), or other counsel satisfactory to Cowen, to furnish Cowen (A) a written opinion and (B) a written negative assurance statement, each in form and substance satisfactory to Cowen (ii) Haug Partners, intellectual property counsel for the Company (“Company’s Intellectual Property Counsel”) or other counsel satisfactory to Cowen, to furnish Cowen a written opinion and (iii) its internal counsel (Company’s Internal Counsel”) to deliver a written opinion, dated the date that the opinion is required to be delivered, substantially similar to the forms attached hereto as Exhibit 7(n)(i), Exhibit 7(n)(ii) and Exhibit 7(n)(iii), respectively, modified, as necessary, to relate to the Registration Statement and the Prospectus as then amended or supplemented; provided, the Company shall be required to furnish no more than one opinion from each of Company’s Outside Counsel and Company’s Internal Counsel per fiscal quarter in connection with the Company’s filing of a Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q (to the extent no waiver is then applicable) (or an Annual Report on Form 10-K, as the case may be), and no more than one opinion from Company’s Intellectual Property Counsel per fiscal year in connection with the Company’s filing of an Annual Report on Form 10-K; provided however, that in lieu of such opinions and negative assurance statement for subsequent Representation Dates, counsel may furnish Cowen with a letter (a “Reliance Letter”) to the effect that Cowen may rely on a prior opinion and a prior negative assurance statement delivered under this Section 7(n) to the same extent as if it were dated the date of such letter (except that statements in such prior opinion and prior negative assurance statement shall be deemed to relate to the Registration Statement and the Prospectus as amended or supplemented at such Representation Date).

 

(o)                                                   Comfort Letter.  On or prior to the First Delivery Date and within three (3) Trading Days of each Representation Date with respect to which the Company is obligated to deliver a certificate in the form attached hereto as Exhibit 7(m) for which no waiver is applicable, the Company shall cause its independent accountants to furnish Cowen a letter (the Comfort Letter), dated the date that the Comfort Letter is delivered, in form and substance satisfactory to Cowen, (i) confirming that they are an independent registered public accounting firm within the meaning of the Securities Act and the PCAOB, (ii) stating, as of such date, the conclusions and findings of such firm with respect to the financial information and other matters ordinarily covered by accountants’ “comfort letters” to Cowen in connection with registered public offerings (the first such letter, the Initial Comfort Letter) and (iii) updating the Initial Comfort Letter with any information that would have been included in the Initial Comfort Letter had it been given on such date and modified as necessary to relate to the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, as amended and supplemented to the date of such letter; provided that the Company shall be required to furnish to Cowen no more than one Comfort Letter hereunder per fiscal quarter in connection with the Company’s filing of a Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q (to the extent no waiver is then applicable) (or an Annual Report on Form 10-K, as the case may be).

 

(p)                                                   Market Activities.  The Company will not, directly or indirectly, (i) take any action designed to cause or result in, or that constitutes or might reasonably be expected

 

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to constitute, the stabilization or manipulation of the price of any security of the Company to facilitate the sale or resale of the Placement Shares or (ii) sell, bid for, or purchase the Common Stock to be issued and sold pursuant to this Agreement in violation of Regulation M, or pay anyone any compensation for soliciting purchases of the Placement Shares other than Cowen; provided, however, that the Company may bid for and purchase shares of its common stock in accordance with Rule 10b-18 under the Exchange Act.

 

(q)                                                   Insurance.  The Company shall maintain, or cause to be maintained, insurance in such amounts and covering such risks as is reasonable and customary for the business for which it is engaged.

 

(r)                                                      Compliance with Laws.  The Company and each of its subsidiaries shall maintain, or cause to be maintained, all material environmental permits, licenses and other authorizations required by federal, state and local law in order to conduct their businesses as described in the Prospectus, and the Company and each of its subsidiaries shall conduct their businesses, or cause their businesses to be conducted, in substantial compliance with such permits, licenses and authorizations and with Environmental Laws except where the failure to maintain or be in compliance with such permits, licenses and authorizations could not reasonably be expected to result in a Material Adverse Change.

 

(s)                                                     Investment Company Act.  The Company will conduct its affairs in such a manner so as to reasonably ensure that neither it nor its subsidiaries will be or become, at any time prior to the termination of this Agreement, an “investment company,” as such term is defined in the Investment Company Act, assuming no change in the Commission’s current interpretation as to entities that are not considered an investment company.

 

(t)                                                      Securities Act and Exchange Act.  The Company will use its best efforts to comply with all requirements imposed upon it by the Securities Act and the Exchange Act as from time to time in force, so far as necessary to permit the continuance of sales of, or dealings in, the Placement Shares as contemplated by the provisions hereof and the Prospectus.

 

(u)                                                   No Offer to Sell.  Other than the Prospectus or a free writing prospectus (as defined in Rule 405 under the Securities Act) approved in advance by the Company and Cowen in its capacity as principal or agent hereunder, neither Cowen nor the Company (including its agents and representatives, other than Cowen in its capacity as such) will make, use, prepare, authorize, approve or refer to any written communication (as defined in Rule 405 under the Securities Act), required to be filed with the Commission, that constitutes an offer to sell or solicitation of an offer to buy Common Stock hereunder.

 

(v)                                                   Sarbanes-Oxley Act.  The Company will use its best efforts to comply with all effective applicable provisions of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act.

 

(w)                                                 Secretary’s Certificate.  On or prior to the First Delivery Date, Cowen shall have received a certificate, signed on behalf of the Company by its corporate Secretary, in form and substance satisfactory to Cowen and its counsel.

 

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8.                                      Conditions to Cowen’s Obligations.  The obligations of Cowen hereunder with respect to a Placement will be subject to the continuing accuracy and completeness of the representations and warranties made by the Company herein, to the due performance by the Company of its obligations hereunder, to the completion by Cowen of a due diligence review satisfactory to Cowen in its reasonable judgment, and to the continuing satisfaction (or waiver by Cowen in its sole discretion) of the following additional conditions:

 

(a)                                                   Registration Statement Effective.  The Registration Statement shall be effective and shall be available for (i) all sales of Placement Shares issued pursuant to all prior Placement Notices and (ii) the sale of all Placement Shares contemplated to be issued by any Placement Notice.

 

(b)                                                   No Material Notices.  None of the following events shall have occurred and be continuing:  (i) receipt by the Company or any of its subsidiaries of any request for additional information from the Commission or any other federal or state governmental authority during the period of effectiveness of the Registration Statement, the response to which would require any post-effective amendments or supplements to the Registration Statement or the Prospectus; (ii) the issuance by the Commission or any other federal or state governmental authority of any stop order suspending the effectiveness of the Registration Statement or the initiation of any proceedings for that purpose; (iii) receipt by the Company of any notification with respect to the suspension of the qualification or exemption from qualification of any of the Placement Shares for sale in any jurisdiction or the initiation or threatening of any proceeding for such purpose; or (iv) the occurrence of any event that makes any material statement made in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus or any material document incorporated or deemed to be incorporated therein by reference untrue in any material respect or that requires the making of any changes in the Registration Statement, the Prospectus or such documents so that, in the case of the Registration Statement, it will not contain any materially untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state any material fact required to be stated therein or necessary to make the statements therein not misleading and, that in the case of the Prospectus, it will not contain any materially untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state any material fact required to be stated therein or necessary to make the statements therein, in the light of the circumstances under which they were made, not misleading.

 

(c)                                                    No Misstatement or Material Omission.  Cowen shall not have advised the Company that the Registration Statement or Prospectus, or any amendment or supplement thereto, contains an untrue statement of fact that in Cowen’s reasonable opinion is material, or omits to state a fact that in Cowen’s reasonable opinion is material and is required to be stated therein or is necessary to make the statements therein not misleading.

 

(d)                                                   Material Changes.  Except as contemplated in the Prospectus, or disclosed in the Company’s reports filed with the Commission, there shall not have been any material adverse change, on a consolidated basis, in the authorized capital stock of the Company or any Material Adverse Change or any development that could reasonably be expected to result in a Material Adverse Change, or any downgrading in or withdrawal of the rating assigned to any of the Company’s securities (other than asset backed securities) by any rating organization or a public announcement by any rating organization that it has under

 

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surveillance or review its rating of any of the Company’s securities (other than asset backed securities), the effect of which, in the case of any such action by a rating organization described above, in the reasonable judgment of Cowen (without relieving the Company of any obligation or liability it may otherwise have), is so material as to make it impracticable or inadvisable to proceed with the offering of the Placement Shares on the terms and in the manner contemplated in the Prospectus.

 

(e)                                                    Company Counsel Legal Opinion.  Cowen shall have received the opinions of Company’s Outside Counsel, Company’s Intellectual Property Counsel and Company’s Internal Counsel required to be delivered pursuant to Section 7(n) on or before the date on which such delivery of such opinion is required pursuant to Section 7(n).

 

(f)                                                     Cowen Counsel Legal Opinion.  Cowen shall have received from Davis Polk & Wardwell LLP, counsel for Cowen, such opinion or opinions, and 10b-5 statement on or before the date on which the delivery of the Company Counsel legal opinion is required pursuant to Section 7(n), with respect to such matters as Cowen may reasonably require, and the Company shall have furnished to such counsel such documents as they request for enabling them to pass upon such matters.

 

(g)                                                    Comfort Letter.  Cowen shall have received the Comfort Letter required to be delivered pursuant to Section 7(o) on or before the date on which such delivery of such Comfort Letter is required pursuant to Section 7(o).

 

(h)                                                   Representation Certificate.  Cowen shall have received the certificate required to be delivered pursuant to Section 7(m) on or before the date on which delivery of such certificate is required pursuant to Section 7(m).

 

(i)                                                       Secretary’s Certificate.  On or prior to the First Delivery Date, Cowen shall have received the Secretary’s Certificate required to be delivered pursuant to Section 7(w).

 

(j)                                                      No Suspension.  Trading in the Common Stock shall not have been suspended on Nasdaq.

 

(k)                                                   Other Materials.  On each date on which the Company is required to deliver a certificate pursuant to Section 7(m), the Company shall have furnished to Cowen such appropriate further information, certificates and documents as Cowen may have reasonably requested.  All such opinions, certificates, letters and other documents shall have been in compliance with the provisions hereof.  The Company will furnish Cowen with such conformed copies of such opinions, certificates, letters and other documents as Cowen shall have reasonably requested.

 

(l)                                                       Securities Act Filings Made.  All filings with the Commission required by Rule 424 under the Securities Act to have been filed prior to the issuance of any Placement Notice hereunder shall have been made within the applicable time period prescribed for such filing by Rule 424.

 

22



 

(m)                                               Approval for Listing.  The Placement Shares shall either have been (i) approved for listing on Nasdaq, subject only to notice of issuance, or (ii) the Company shall have filed an application for listing of the Placement Shares on Nasdaq at, or prior to, the issuance of any Placement Notice.

 

(n)                                                   No Termination Event.  There shall not have occurred any event that would permit Cowen to terminate this Agreement pursuant to Section 11(a).

 

9.                                      Indemnification and Contribution.

 

(a)                                                   Company Indemnification.  The Company agrees to indemnify and hold harmless Cowen, the directors, officers, partners, employees and agents of Cowen and each person, if any, who (i) controls Cowen within the meaning of Section 15 of the Securities Act or Section 20 of the Exchange Act, or (ii) is controlled by or is under common control with Cowen (a “Cowen Affiliate”) from and against any and all losses, claims, liabilities, expenses and damages (including, but not limited to, any and all reasonable investigative, legal and other expenses incurred in connection with, and any and all amounts paid in settlement (in accordance with Section 9(c)) of, any action, suit or proceeding between any of the indemnified parties and any indemnifying parties or between any indemnified party and any third party, or otherwise, or any claim asserted), as and when incurred, to which Cowen, or any such person, may become subject under the Securities Act, the Exchange Act or other federal or state statutory law or regulation, at common law or otherwise, insofar as such losses, claims, liabilities, expenses or damages arise out of or are based, directly or indirectly, on (x) any untrue statement or alleged untrue statement of a material fact contained in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus or any amendment or supplement to the Registration Statement or the Prospectus or in any free writing prospectus or in any application or other document executed by or on behalf of the Company in connection with this Agreement or based on written information furnished by or on behalf of the Company filed in any jurisdiction in order to qualify the Placement Shares under the securities laws thereof or filed with the Commission or (y) the omission or alleged omission to state in any such document a material fact required to be stated in it or necessary to make the statements in it not misleading; provided, however, that this indemnity agreement shall not apply to the extent that such loss, claim, liability, expense or damage arises from the sale of the Placement Shares pursuant to this Agreement and is caused directly or indirectly by an untrue statement or omission made in reliance upon and in conformity with the Agent’s Information.  This indemnity agreement will be in addition to any liability that the Company might otherwise have.

 

(b)                                                   Cowen Indemnification.  Cowen agrees to indemnify and hold harmless the Company and its directors and each officer of the Company that signed the Registration Statement, and each person, if any, who (i) controls the Company within the meaning of Section 15 of the Securities Act or Section 20 of the Exchange Act or (ii) is controlled by or is under common control with the Company (a “Company Affiliate”) against any and all loss, liability, claim, damage and expense described in the indemnity contained in Section 9(a), as incurred, but only with respect to untrue statements or omissions, or alleged untrue statements or omissions, made in the Registration Statement (or any amendments thereto) or

 

23



 

the Prospectus (or any amendment or supplement thereto) in reliance upon and in conformity with the Agent’s Information.

 

(c)                                                    Procedure.  Any party that proposes to assert the right to be indemnified under this Section 9 will, promptly after receipt of notice of commencement of any action against such party in respect of which a claim is to be made against an indemnifying party or parties under this Section 9, notify each such indemnifying party in writing of the commencement of such action, enclosing a copy of all papers served, but the omission so to notify such indemnifying party will not relieve the indemnifying party from (i) any liability that it might have to any indemnified party otherwise than under this Section 9 and (ii) any liability that it may have to any indemnified party under the foregoing provision of this Section 9 unless, and only to the extent that, such omission results in the forfeiture of substantive rights or defenses by the indemnifying party.  If any such action is brought against any indemnified party and it notifies the indemnifying party of its commencement, the indemnifying party will be entitled to participate in and, to the extent that it elects by delivering written notice to the indemnified party promptly after receiving notice of the commencement of the action from the indemnified party, jointly with any other indemnifying party similarly notified, to assume the defense of the action, with counsel reasonably satisfactory to the indemnified party, and after notice from the indemnifying party to the indemnified party of its election to assume the defense, the indemnifying party will not be liable to the indemnified party for any legal or other expenses except as provided below and except for the reasonable costs of investigation subsequently incurred by the indemnified party in connection with the defense.  The indemnified party will have the right to employ its own counsel in any such action, but the fees, expenses and other charges of such counsel will be at the expense of such indemnified party unless (1) the employment of counsel by the indemnified party has been authorized in writing by the indemnifying party, (2) the indemnified party has reasonably concluded (based on advice of counsel) that there may be legal defenses available to it or other indemnified parties that are different from or in addition to those available to the indemnifying party, (3) a conflict or potential conflict exists (based on advice of counsel to the indemnified party) between the indemnified party and the indemnifying party (in which case the indemnifying party will not have the right to direct the defense of such action on behalf of the indemnified party) or (4) the indemnifying party has not in fact employed counsel to assume the defense of such action within a reasonable time after receiving notice of the commencement of the action, in each of which cases the reasonable fees, disbursements and other charges of counsel will be at the expense of the indemnifying party or parties.  It is understood that the indemnifying party or parties shall not, in connection with any proceeding or related proceedings in the same jurisdiction, be liable for the reasonable fees, disbursements and other charges of more than one separate firm admitted to practice in such jurisdiction at any one time for all such indemnified party or parties.  All such fees, disbursements and other charges will be reimbursed by the indemnifying party promptly as they are incurred.  An indemnifying party will not, in any event, be liable for any settlement of any action or claim effected without its written consent.  No indemnifying party shall, without the prior written consent of each indemnified party, settle or compromise or consent to the entry of any judgment in any pending or threatened claim, action or proceeding relating to the matters contemplated by this Section 9 (whether or not any indemnified party is a party thereto), unless such settlement,

 

24



 

compromise or consent includes an unconditional release of each indemnified party from all liability arising or that may arise out of such claim, action or proceeding.

 

(d)                                                   Contribution.  In order to provide for just and equitable contribution in circumstances in which the indemnification provided for in the foregoing paragraphs of this Section 9 is applicable in accordance with its terms but for any reason is held to be unavailable from the Company or Cowen, the Company and Cowen will contribute to the total losses, claims, liabilities, expenses and damages (including any investigative, legal and other expenses reasonably incurred in connection with, and any amount paid in settlement of, any action, suit or proceeding or any claim asserted, but after deducting any contribution received by the Company from persons other than Cowen, such as persons who control the Company within the meaning of the Securities Act, officers of the Company who signed the Registration Statement and directors of the Company, who also may be liable for contribution) to which the Company and Cowen may be subject in such proportion as shall be appropriate to reflect the relative benefits received by the Company on the one hand and Cowen on the other.  The relative benefits received by the Company on the one hand and Cowen on the other hand shall be deemed to be in the same proportion as the total Net Proceeds from the sale of the Placement Shares (before deducting expenses) received by the Company bear to the total compensation received by Cowen from the sale of Placement Shares on behalf of the Company.  If, but only if, the allocation provided by the foregoing sentence is not permitted by applicable law, the allocation of contribution shall be made in such proportion as is appropriate to reflect not only the relative benefits referred to in the foregoing sentence but also the relative fault of the Company, on the one hand, and Cowen, on the other, with respect to the statements or omission that resulted in such loss, claim, liability, expense or damage, or action in respect thereof, as well as any other relevant equitable considerations with respect to such offering.  Such relative fault shall be determined by reference to, among other things, whether the untrue or alleged untrue statement of a material fact or omission or alleged omission to state a material fact relates to information supplied by the Company or Cowen, the intent of the parties and their relative knowledge, access to information and opportunity to correct or prevent such statement or omission.  The Company and Cowen agree that it would not be just and equitable if contributions pursuant to this Section 9(d) were to be determined by pro rata allocation or by any other method of allocation that does not take into account the equitable considerations referred to herein.  The amount paid or payable by an indemnified party as a result of the loss, claim, liability, expense, or damage, or action in respect thereof, referred to above in this Section 9(d) shall be deemed to include, for the purpose of this Section 9(d), any legal or other expenses reasonably incurred by such indemnified party in connection with investigating or defending any such action or claim to the extent consistent with Section 9(c) hereof.  Notwithstanding the foregoing provisions of this Section 9(d), Cowen shall not be required to contribute any amount in excess of the commissions received by it under this Agreement and no person found guilty of fraudulent misrepresentation (within the meaning of Section 11(f) of the Securities Act) will be entitled to contribution from any person who was not guilty of such fraudulent misrepresentation.  For purposes of this Section 9(d), any person who controls a party to this Agreement within the meaning of the Securities Act, and any officers, directors, partners, employees or agents of Cowen, will have the same rights to contribution as that party, and each officer and director of the Company who signed the Registration Statement will have the same rights to contribution as

 

25



 

the Company, subject in each case to the provisions hereof.  Any party entitled to contribution, promptly after receipt of notice of commencement of any action against such party in respect of which a claim for contribution may be made under this Section 9(d), will notify any such party or parties from whom contribution may be sought, but the omission to so notify will not relieve that party or parties from whom contribution may be sought from any other obligation it or they may have under this Section 9(d) except to the extent that the failure to so notify such other party materially prejudiced the substantive rights or defenses of the party from whom contribution is sought.  Except for a settlement entered into pursuant to the last sentence of Section 9(c) hereof, no party will be liable for contribution with respect to any action or claim settled without its written consent if such consent is required pursuant to Section 9(c) hereof.

 

10.                               Representations and Agreements to Survive Delivery.  The indemnity and contribution agreements contained in Section 9 of this Agreement and all representations and warranties of the Company herein or in certificates delivered pursuant hereto shall survive, as of their respective dates, regardless of (i) any investigation made by or on behalf of Cowen, any controlling persons, or the Company (or any of their respective officers, directors or controlling persons), (ii) delivery and acceptance of the Placement Shares and payment therefor or (iii) any termination of this Agreement.

 

11.                               Termination.

 

(a)                                                   Cowen shall have the right by giving notice as hereinafter specified at any time to terminate this Agreement if (i) any Material Adverse Change, or any development that could reasonably be expected to result in a Material Adverse Change has occurred that, in the reasonable judgment of Cowen, may materially impair the ability of Cowen to sell the Placement Shares hereunder, (ii) the Company shall have failed, refused or been unable to perform any agreement on its part to be performed hereunder; provided, however, in the case of any failure of the Company to deliver (or cause another person to deliver) any certification, opinion, or letter required under Sections 7(m), 7(n), or 7(o), Cowen’s right to terminate shall not arise unless such failure to deliver (or cause to be delivered) continues for more than thirty (30) days from the date such delivery was required; or (iii) any other condition of Cowen’s obligations hereunder is not fulfilled, or (iv), any suspension or limitation of trading in the Placement Shares or in securities generally on Nasdaq shall have occurred.  Any such termination shall be without liability of any party to any other party except that the provisions of Section 7(g) (Expenses), Section 9 (Indemnification and Contribution), Section 10 (Representations and Agreements to Survive Delivery), Section 16 (Applicable Law; Consent to Jurisdiction) and Section 17 (Waiver of Jury Trial) hereof shall remain in full force and effect notwithstanding such termination.  If Cowen elects to terminate this Agreement as provided in this Section 11(a), Cowen shall provide the required notice as specified in Section 12 (Notices).

 

(b)                                                   The Company shall have the right, by giving ten (10) days’ notice as hereinafter specified to terminate this Agreement in its sole discretion at any time after the date of this Agreement.  Any such termination shall be without liability of any party to any other party except that the provisions of Section 7(g), Section 9, Section 10, Section 16 and Section 17 hereof shall remain in full force and effect notwithstanding such termination.

 

26



 

(c)                                                    Cowen shall have the right, by giving ten (10) days’ notice as hereinafter specified to terminate this Agreement in its sole discretion at any time after the date of this Agreement.  Any such termination shall be without liability of any party to any other party except that the provisions of Section 7(g), Section 9, Section 10, Section 16 and Section 17 hereof shall remain in full force and effect notwithstanding such termination.

 

(d)                                                   Unless earlier terminated pursuant to this Section 11, this Agreement shall automatically terminate upon the issuance and sale of all of the Placement Shares through Cowen on the terms and subject to the conditions set forth herein; provided that the provisions of Section 7(g), Section 9, Section 10, Section 16 and Section 17 hereof shall remain in full force and effect notwithstanding such termination.

 

(e)                                                    This Agreement shall remain in full force and effect unless terminated pursuant to Sections 11(a), (b), (c), or (d) above or otherwise by mutual agreement of the parties; provided, however, that any such termination by mutual agreement shall in all cases be deemed to provide that Section 7(g), Section 9, Section 10, Section 16 and Section 17 shall remain in full force and effect. Upon termination of this Agreement, the Company shall not have any liability to Cowen for any discount, commission or other compensation with respect to any Placement Shares not otherwise sold by Cowen under this Agreement, except with respect to reimbursement of expenses actually incurred pursuant to Section 7(g).

 

(f)                                                     Any termination of this Agreement shall be effective on the date specified in such notice of termination; provided, however, that such termination shall not be effective until the close of business on the date of receipt of such notice by Cowen or the Company, as the case may be.  If such termination shall occur prior to the Settlement Date for any sale of Placement Shares, such Placement Shares shall settle in accordance with the provisions of this Agreement.

 

12.                               Notices.  All notices or other communications required or permitted to be given by any party to any other party pursuant to the terms of this Agreement shall be in writing, unless otherwise specified in this Agreement, and if sent to Cowen, shall be delivered to Cowen at Cowen and Company, LLC, 599 Lexington Avenue, New York, NY 10022, fax no.  646-562-1124, Attention: General Counsel; or if sent to the Company, shall be delivered to Ophthotech Corporation, One Penn Plaza, 35th Floor, New York, New York 10119, Attention: General Counsel; with a copy to Wilmer Cutler Pickering Hale and Dorr LLP, Attention: Brian A. Johnson. Each party to this Agreement may change such address for notices by sending to the parties to this Agreement written notice of a new address for such purpose.  Each such notice or other communication shall be deemed given (i) when delivered personally or by verifiable facsimile transmission (with an original to follow) on or before 4:30 p.m., New York City time, on a Business Day (as defined below), or, if such day is not a Business Day on the next succeeding Business Day, (ii) on the next Business Day after timely delivery to a nationally recognized overnight courier and (iii) on the Business Day actually received if deposited in the U.S. mail (certified or registered mail, return receipt requested, postage prepaid).  For purposes of this Agreement, “Business Day” shall mean any day on which the Nasdaq and commercial banks in the City of New York are open for business.

 

27



 

13.                               Successors and Assigns.  This Agreement shall inure to the benefit of and be binding upon the Company and Cowen and their respective successors and the affiliates, controlling persons, officers and directors referred to in Section 9 hereof.  References to any of the parties contained in this Agreement shall be deemed to include the successors and permitted assigns of such party.  Nothing in this Agreement, express or implied, is intended to confer upon any party other than the parties hereto or their respective successors and permitted assigns any rights, remedies, obligations or liabilities under or by reason of this Agreement, except as expressly provided in this Agreement.  Neither party may assign its rights or obligations under this Agreement without the prior written consent of the other party; provided, however, that Cowen may assign its rights and obligations hereunder to an affiliate of Cowen without obtaining the Company’s consent.

 

14.                               Adjustments for Share Splits.  The parties acknowledge and agree that all share-related numbers contained in this Agreement shall be adjusted to take into account any share split, share dividend or similar event effected with respect to the Common Stock.

 

15.                               Entire Agreement; Amendment; Severability.  This Agreement (including all schedules and exhibits attached hereto and Placement Notices issued pursuant hereto) constitutes the entire agreement and supersedes all other prior and contemporaneous agreements and undertakings, both written and oral, among the parties hereto with regard to the subject matter hereof.  Neither this Agreement nor any term hereof may be amended except pursuant to a written instrument executed by the Company and Cowen.  In the event that any one or more of the provisions contained herein, or the application thereof in any circumstance, is held invalid, illegal or unenforceable as written by a court of competent jurisdiction, then such provision shall be given full force and effect to the fullest possible extent that it is valid, legal and enforceable, and the remainder of the terms and provisions herein shall be construed as if such invalid, illegal or unenforceable term or provision was not contained herein, but only to the extent that giving effect to such provision and the remainder of the terms and provisions hereof shall be in accordance with the intent of the parties as reflected in this Agreement.

 

16.                               Applicable Law; Consent to Jurisdiction.  This Agreement shall be governed by, and construed in accordance with, the internal laws of the State of New York without regard to the principles of conflicts of laws.  Each party hereby irrevocably submits to the non-exclusive jurisdiction of the state and federal courts sitting in the City of New York, borough of Manhattan, for the adjudication of any dispute hereunder or in connection with any transaction contemplated hereby, and hereby irrevocably waives, and agrees not to assert in any suit, action or proceeding, any claim that it is not personally subject to the jurisdiction of any such court, that such suit, action or proceeding is brought in an inconvenient forum or that the venue of such suit, action or proceeding is improper.  Each party hereby irrevocably waives personal service of process and consents to process being served in any such suit, action or proceeding by mailing a copy thereof (certified or registered mail, return receipt requested) to such party at the address in effect for notices to it under this Agreement and agrees that such service shall constitute good and sufficient service of process and notice thereof.  Nothing contained herein shall be deemed to limit in any way any right to serve process in any manner permitted by law.

 

17.                               Waiver of Jury Trial.  The Company and Cowen each hereby irrevocably waives any right it may have to a trial by jury in respect of any claim based upon or arising out of this Agreement or any transaction contemplated hereby.

 

28



 

18.                               Absence of Fiduciary RelationshipThe Company acknowledges and agrees that:

 

(a)                                                   Cowen has been retained solely to act as sales agent in connection with the sale of the Common Stock and that no fiduciary, advisory or agency relationship between the Company and Cowen has been created in respect of any of the transactions contemplated by this Agreement, irrespective of whether Cowen has advised or is advising the Company on other matters;

 

(b)                                                   the Company is capable of evaluating and understanding and understands and accepts the terms, risks and conditions of the transactions contemplated by this Agreement;

 

(c)                                                    the Company has been advised that Cowen and its affiliates are engaged in a broad range of transactions which may involve interests that differ from those of the Company and that Cowen has no obligation to disclose such interests and transactions to the Company by virtue of any fiduciary, advisory or agency relationship; and

 

(d)                                                   the Company waives, to the fullest extent permitted by law, any claims it may have against Cowen, for breach of fiduciary duty or alleged breach of fiduciary duty and agrees that Cowen shall have no liability (whether direct or indirect) to the Company in respect of such a fiduciary claim or to any person asserting a fiduciary duty claim on behalf of or in right of the Company, including stockholders, partners, employees or creditors of the Company.

 

19.                               Counterparts.  This Agreement may be executed in two or more counterparts, each of which shall be deemed an original, but all of which together shall constitute one and the same instrument.  Delivery of an executed Agreement by one party to the other may be made by facsimile transmission.

 

20.                               Definitions.  As used in this Agreement, the following terms have the meanings set forth below:

 

(a)                                                   Applicable Time” means the date of this Agreement, each Representation Date, the date on which a Placement Notice is given, and any date on which Placement Shares are sold hereunder.

 

(b)                                                   Agent’s Information” means, solely the following information in the Prospectus: the third sentence in the eighth paragraph under the caption “Plan of Distribution” in the Prospectus.

 

[Remainder of Page Intentionally Blank]

 

29



 

If the foregoing correctly sets forth the understanding between the Company and Cowen, please so indicate in the space provided below for that purpose, whereupon this letter shall constitute a binding agreement between the Company and Cowen.

 

 

Very truly yours,

 

 

 

COWEN AND COMPANY, LLC

 

 

 

 

 

 

By:

/s/ George Milstein

 

 

Name: George Milstein

 

 

Title: Head of Healthcare Investment Banking

 

 

 

 

 

ACCEPTED as of the date

 

first-above written:

 

 

 

OPHTHOTECH CORPORATION

 

 

 

 

 

 

By:

/s/ Glenn Sblendorio

 

 

Name: Glenn Sblendorio

 

 

Title: Chief Executive Officer and President

 

Signature Page – Sales Agreement

 


 

SCHEDULE 1

 

FORM OF PLACEMENT NOTICE

 

From:

 

[                        ]

Cc:

 

[                        ]

To:

 

[                        ]

Subject:

 

Cowen at the Market Offering—Placement Notice

 

Ladies & Gentlemen:

 

Pursuant to the terms and subject to the conditions contained in the Sales Agreement between Ophthotech Corporation (the “Company”), and Cowen and Company, LLC (“Cowen”) dated August 1, 2018 (the “Agreement”), I hereby request on behalf of the Company that Cowen sell up to [  ] shares of the Company’s common stock, par value $0.001 per share, at a minimum market price of $        per share.  Sales should begin on the date of this Notice and shall continue until [DATE] [all shares are sold] [the aggregate sales price of the shares reaches $         ].

 



 

SCHEDULE 2

 

Company

 

·                  Glenn P. Sblendorio, Chief Executive Officer (glenn.sblendorio@ophthotech.com)

 

·                  David F. Carroll, Chief Financial Officer (david.carroll@ophthotech.com)

 

Cowen

 

·                  Michael Murphy, Director (michael.murphy@cowen.com)

 

·                  William Follis, Managing Director (william.follis@cowen.com)

 



 

SCHEDULE 3

 

Compensation

 

Cowen shall be paid compensation equal to 3.0% of the gross proceeds from the sales of Common Stock pursuant to the terms of this Agreement.

 



 

Exhibit 7(n)(i)

 

Form of Opinion of Counsel for the Company

 

[Attached.]

 



 

Exhibit 7(n)(ii)

 

Form of Opinion of Intellectual Property Counsel for the Company

 

[Attached.]

 



 

Exhibit 7(n)(iii)

 

Form of Opinion of Internal Counsel for the Company

 



 

Exhibit 7(m)

 

OFFICER’S CERTIFICATE

 

The undersigned, the duly qualified and elected                        , of Ophthotech Corporation, a Delaware corporation (the “Company”), does hereby certify in such capacity and on behalf of the Company, pursuant to Section 7(m) of the Sales Agreement dated August 1, 2018 (the “Sales Agreement”) between the Company and Cowen and Company, LLC, that to the best of the knowledge of the undersigned:

 

(i)                                     The representations and warranties of the Company in Section 6 of the Sales Agreement (A) to the extent such representations and warranties are subject to qualifications and exceptions contained therein relating to materiality or Material Adverse Change, are true and correct on and as of the date hereof with the same force and effect as if expressly made on and as of the date hereof, except for those representations and warranties that speak solely as of a specific date and which were true and correct as of such date, and (B) to the extent such representations and warranties are not subject to any qualifications or exceptions, are true and correct in all material respects as of the date hereof as if made on and as of the date hereof with the same force and effect as if expressly made on and as of the date hereof except for those representations and warranties that speak solely as of a specific date and which were true and correct as of such date; and

 

(ii)                                  The Company has complied with all agreements and satisfied all conditions on its part to be performed or satisfied pursuant to the Sales Agreement at or prior to the date hereof.

 

 

 

By:

 

 

 

Name:

 

 

Title:

 

 

 

 

Date:

 

 




Exhibit 4.3

 

OPHTHOTECH CORPORATION

 

and

 


 

Trustee

 

INDENTURE

 

Dated as of                           

 

SENIOR DEBT SECURITIES

 



 

CROSS-REFERENCE TABLE(1)

 

Section of
Trust Indenture Act
of 1939, as amended

 

Section of
Indenture

310(a)

 

6.09

310(b)

 

6.08

 

 

6.10

310(c)

 

Inapplicable

311(a)

 

6.13

311(b)

 

6.13

311(c)

 

Inapplicable

312(a)

 

4.01
4.04

312(b)

 

4.04(c)

312(c)

 

4.04(c)

313(a)

 

4.03

313(b)

 

4.03

313(c)

 

4.03

313(d)

 

4.03

314(a)

 

4.02

314(b)

 

Inapplicable

314(c)

 

2.04
8.04
9.01(c)
10.01(b)
11.05

314(d)

 

Inapplicable

314(e)

 

11.05

314(f)

 

Inapplicable

315(a)

 

6.01
6.02

315(b)

 

5.11

315(c)

 

6.01

315(d)

 

6.01

 

 

6.02

315(e)

 

5.12

316(a)

 

5.09
5.10

 

 

7.04

316(b)

 

5.06
5.10

316(c)

 

7.02

317(a)

 

5.04

317(b)

 

3.04

318(a)

 

11.07

 


(1)  This Cross-Reference Table does not constitute part of the Indenture and shall not have any bearing on the interpretation of any of its terms or provisions.

 



 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

 

 

PAGE

 

 

 

ARTICLE 1

DEFINITIONS

1

Section 1.01

Certain Terms Defined

1

 

 

 

ARTICLE 2

SECURITIES

7

Section 2.01

Forms Generally

7

Section 2.02

Form of Trustee’s Certificate of Authentication

7

Section 2.03

Amount Unlimited; Issuable in Series

7

Section 2.04

Authentication and Delivery of Securities

10

Section 2.05

Execution of Securities

11

Section 2.06

Certificate of Authentication

12

Section 2.07

Denomination and Date of Securities; Payments of Interest

12

Section 2.08

Registration, Transfer and Exchange

12

Section 2.09

Mutilated, Defaced, Destroyed, Lost and Stolen Securities

15

Section 2.10

Cancellation of Securities; Destruction Thereof

15

Section 2.11

Temporary Securities

16

 

 

 

ARTICLE 3

COVENANTS OF THE ISSUER

16

Section 3.01

Payment of Principal and Interest

16

Section 3.02

Offices for Payments, Etc.

16

Section 3.03

Appointment to Fill a Vacancy in Office of Trustee

17

Section 3.04

Paying Agents

17

Section 3.05

Written Statement to Trustee

18

 

 

 

ARTICLE 4

SECURITYHOLDERS LISTS AND REPORTS BY THE ISSUER AND THE TRUSTEE

18

Section 4.01

Issuer to Furnish Trustee Information as to Names and Addresses of Securityholders

18

Section 4.02

Reports by the Issuer

18

Section 4.03

Reports by the Trustee

19

Section 4.04

Preservation of Information; Communication with Securityholders

19

 

 

 

ARTICLE 5

REMEDIES OF THE TRUSTEE AND SECURITYHOLDERS ON EVENT OF DEFAULT

19

Section 5.01

Event of Default Defined; Acceleration of Maturity; Waiver of Default

19

Section 5.02

Collection of Debt by Trustee; Trustee May Prove Debt

21

Section 5.03

Application of Proceeds

23

Section 5.04

Suits for Enforcement

24

Section 5.05

Restoration of Rights on Abandonment of Proceedings

24

Section 5.06

Limitations on Suits by Securityholders

25

Section 5.07

Unconditional Right of Securityholders to Institute Certain Suits

25

 

i



 

Section 5.08

Powers and Remedies Cumulative; Delay or Omission Not Waiver of Default

25

Section 5.09

Control by Holders of Securities

26

Section 5.10

Waiver of Past Defaults

26

Section 5.11

Trustee to Give Notice of Default

27

Section 5.12

Right of Court to Require Filing of Undertaking to Pay Costs

27

 

 

 

ARTICLE 6

CONCERNING THE TRUSTEE

27

Section 6.01

Duties and Responsibilities of the Trustee; During Default; Prior to Default

27

Section 6.02

Certain Rights of the Trustee

28

Section 6.03

Trustee Not Responsible for Recitals, Disposition of Securities or Application of Proceeds Thereof

29

Section 6.04

Trustee and Agents May Hold Securities; Collections, Etc.

30

Section 6.05

Moneys Held by Trustee

30

Section 6.06

Compensation and Indemnification of Trustee and Its Prior Claim

30

Section 6.07

Right of Trustee to Rely on Officer’s Certificate, Etc.

30

Section 6.08

Disqualification; Conflicting Interests

31

Section 6.09

Persons Eligible for Appointment as Trustee

31

Section 6.10

Resignation and Removal; Appointment of Successor Trustee

31

Section 6.11

Acceptance of Appointment by Successor Trustee

32

Section 6.12

Merger, Conversion, Consolidation or Succession to Business of Trustee

33

Section 6.13

Preferential Collection of Claims Against the Issuer

34

 

 

 

ARTICLE 7

CONCERNING THE SECURITYHOLDERS

34

Section 7.01

Evidence of Action Taken by Securityholders

34

Section 7.02

Proof of Execution of Instruments and of Holding of Securities

34

Section 7.03

Holders to Be Treated as Owners

34

Section 7.04

Securities Owned by Issuer Deemed Not Outstanding

34

Section 7.05

Right of Revocation of Action Taken

35

 

 

 

ARTICLE 8

SUPPLEMENTAL INDENTURES

35

Section 8.01

Supplemental Indentures Without Consent of Securityholders

35

Section 8.02

Supplemental Indentures With Consent of Securityholders

37

Section 8.03

Effect of Supplemental Indenture

38

Section 8.04

Documents to Be Given to Trustee

38

Section 8.05

Notation on Securities in Respect of Supplemental Indentures

39

 

 

 

ARTICLE 9

CONSOLIDATION, MERGER, SALE OR CONVEYANCE

39

Section 9.01

Issuer May Consolidate, Etc., on Certain Terms

39

Section 9.02

Successor Issuer Substituted

39

 

 

 

ARTICLE 10

SATISFACTION AND DISCHARGE OF INDENTURE; DEFEASANCE; UNCLAIMED MONEYS

40

Section 10.01

Satisfaction and Discharge of Indenture; Defeasance

40

 

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Section 10.02

Application by Trustee of Funds Deposited for Payment of Securities

44

Section 10.03

Repayment of Moneys Held by Paying Agent

44

Section 10.04

Return of Moneys Held by Trustee and Paying Agent Unclaimed for Two Years

45

Section 10.05

Indemnity for U.S. Government Obligations and Foreign Government Obligations

45

 

 

 

ARTICLE 11

MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS

45

Section 11.01

No Recourse

45

Section 11.02

Provisions of Indenture for the Sole Benefit of Parties and Holders of Securities

45

Section 11.03

Successors and Assigns of Issuer Bound by Indenture

46

Section 11.04

Notices and Demands on Issuer, Trustee and Holders of Securities

46

Section 11.05

Officer’s Certificates and Opinions of Counsel; Statements to Be Contained Therein

46

Section 11.06

Payments Due on Saturdays, Sundays and Holidays

47

Section 11.07

Conflict of Any Provision of Indenture With Trust Indenture Act of 1939

48

Section 11.08

New York Law to Govern

48

Section 11.09

Counterparts

48

Section 11.10

Effect of Headings

48

Section 11.11

Actions by Successor

48

Section 11.12

Severability

48

 

 

 

ARTICLE 12

REDEMPTION OF SECURITIES AND SINKING FUNDS

48

Section 12.01

Applicability of Article

48

Section 12.02

Notice of Redemption; Partial Redemptions

48

Section 12.03

Payment of Securities Called for Redemption

50

Section 12.04

Exclusion of Certain Securities from Eligibility for Selection for Redemption

50

Section 12.05

Mandatory and Optional Sinking Funds

51

 

iii


 

THIS INDENTURE, dated as of           between Ophthotech Corporation, a Delaware corporation (the “Issuer”), and         , a         (the “Trustee”),

 

W I T N E S S E T H :

 

WHEREAS, the Issuer may from time to time duly authorize the issue of its unsecured debentures, notes or other evidences of indebtedness to be issued in one or more series (the “Securities”) up to such principal amount or amounts as may from time to time be authorized in accordance with the terms of this Indenture;

 

WHEREAS, the Issuer has duly authorized the execution and delivery of this Indenture to provide, among other things, for the authentication, delivery and administration of the Securities; and

 

WHEREAS, all things necessary to make this Indenture a valid indenture and agreement according to its terms have been done;

 

NOW, THEREFORE:

 

In consideration of the premises and the purchases of the Securities by the holders thereof, the Issuer and the Trustee mutually covenant and agree for the equal and proportionate benefit of the respective holders from time to time of the Securities as follows:

 

ARTICLE 1
DEFINITIONS

 

Section 1.01          Certain Terms Defined.  The following terms (except as otherwise expressly provided or unless the context otherwise clearly requires) for all purposes of this Indenture and of any indenture supplemental hereto shall have the respective meanings specified in this Section.  All other terms used in this Indenture that are defined in the Trust Indenture Act of 1939 or the definitions of which in the Securities Act of 1933, as amended are referred to in the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, including terms defined therein by reference to the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (except as herein otherwise expressly provided or unless the context otherwise clearly requires), shall have the meanings assigned to such terms in said Trust Indenture Act and in said Securities Act of 1933 as in force at the date of this Indenture.  All accounting terms used herein and not expressly defined shall have the meanings assigned to such terms in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles, and the term “generally accepted accounting principles” means such accounting principles as are generally accepted in the United States at the time of any computation.  The words “herein”, “hereof” and “hereunder” and other words of similar import refer to this Indenture as a whole and not to any particular Article, Section or other subdivision.  The terms defined in this Article have the meanings assigned to them in this Article and include the plural as well as the singular.

 

“Additional Amounts” means any additional amounts that are required by this Indenture or by any Security, under circumstances specified herein or therein, to be paid by the Issuer in respect of certain taxes, assessments or other governmental charges imposed on Holders specified therein and which are owing to such Holders.

 



 

Applicable Procedures” means, with respect to a Depositary, as to any matter at any time, the policies and procedures of such Depositary, if any, that are applicable to such matter at such time.

 

Board of Directors” means either the Board of Directors of the Issuer or any committee of such Board duly authorized to act on its behalf.

 

Board Resolution” means a copy of one or more resolutions, certified by the secretary or an assistant secretary of the Issuer to have been duly adopted by the Board of Directors and to be in full force and effect, and delivered to the Trustee.

 

Business Day” means, with respect to any Security, a day that in the city (or in any of the cities, if more than one) in which amounts are payable, as specified in the form of such Security, is not a day on which banking institutions are authorized or required by law or regulation to close.

 

“Capital Stock” means (a) in the case of a corporation, corporate stock; (b) in the case of an association or business entity, any and all shares, interests, participations, rights or other equivalents (however designated) of corporate stock; (c) in the case of a partnership or limited liability company, partnership interests (whether general or limited) or membership interests; and (d) any other interest or participation that confers on a Person the right to receive a share of the profits and losses of, or distributions of assets of, the issuing Person, but excluding from all of the foregoing any Debt securities convertible into Capital Stock, whether or not such Debt securities include any right of participation with Capital Stock.

 

Commission” means the Securities and Exchange Commission, as from time to time constituted, created under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, or if at any time after the execution and delivery of this Indenture such Commission is not existing and performing the duties now assigned to it under the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, then the body performing such duties on such date.

 

Common Stock” means shares of common stock, par value $0.001 per share, of the Issuer as the same exists at the date of execution and delivery of this Indenture or as such stock may be reconstituted from time to time.

 

Corporate Trust Office” means the office of the Trustee at which the corporate trust business of the Trustee shall, at any particular time, be principally administered, which office is, at the date as of which this Indenture is dated, located at           .

 

Debt” of any Person means any debt for money borrowed which is created, assumed, incurred or guaranteed in any manner by such Person or for which such Person is otherwise responsible or liable, and shall expressly include any such guaranty thereof by such Person.  For the purpose of computing the amount of the Debt of any Person there shall be excluded all Debt of such Person for the payment or redemption or satisfaction of which money or securities (or evidences of such Debt, if permitted under the terms of the instrument creating such Debt) in the necessary amount shall have been deposited in trust with the proper depositary, whether upon or prior to the maturity or the date fixed for redemption of such Debt; and, in any instance where Debt is so excluded, for the purpose of computing the assets of such Person there shall be

 

2



 

excluded the money, securities or evidences of Debt deposited by such Person in trust for the purpose of paying or satisfying such Debt.

 

Depositary” means, with respect to the Securities of any series issuable or issued in the form of one or more Global Securities, the Person designated as Depositary by the Issuer pursuant to Section 2.04 until a successor Depositary shall have become such pursuant to the applicable provisions of this Indenture, and thereafter “Depositary” shall mean or include each Person who is then a Depositary hereunder, and if at any time there is more than one such Person, “Depositary” as used with respect to the Securities of any such series shall mean the Depositary with respect to the Global Securities of that series.

 

Dollar” means the currency of the United States of America as at the time of payment is legal tender for the payment of public and private debts.

 

Event of Default” means any event or condition specified as such in Section 5.01.

 

Foreign Currency” means a currency issued by the government of a country other than the United States.

 

“Foreign Government Obligation” means (a) a direct obligation of the government of a country other than the United States of America, backed by the full faith and credit of such government, (b) an obligation of a Person controlled or supervised by and acting as an agency or instrumentality of such government, the payment of which is unconditionally guaranteed as a full faith and credit obligation by such government or (c) any depositary receipt issued by a bank (as defined in Section 3(a)(2) of the Securities Act of 1933) as custodian with respect to any Foreign Government Obligation which is specified in clause (a) and held by such bank for the account of the holder of such depositary receipt, or with respect to any specific payment of principal of or interest on any such Foreign Government Obligation which is so specified and held, provided that (except as required by law) such custodian is not authorized to make any deduction from the amount payable to the holder of such depositary receipt from any amount received by the custodian in respect of the Foreign Government Obligation or the specific payment of principal or interest evidenced by such depositary receipt.

 

Global Security” means a Security evidencing all or a part of a series of Securities, issued to the Depositary for such series in accordance with Section 2.04, and bearing the legend prescribed in Section 2.04.

 

Holder”, “holder”, “holder of Securities”, “Securityholder” or other similar terms mean the Person in whose name such Security is registered in the Security register kept by the Issuer for that purpose in accordance with the terms hereof.

 

Indenture” means this instrument as originally executed and delivered or, if amended or supplemented as herein provided, as so amended or supplemented or both, and shall include the forms and terms of particular series of Securities established as contemplated hereunder.

 

interest”, unless the context otherwise requires, refers to interest, and when used with respect to non-interest bearing Securities, refers to interest payable after maturity, if any.

 

3



 

Interest Payment Date”, with respect to any Security, means the Stated Maturity of an installment of interest on such Security.

 

Issuer” means Ophthotech Corporation, a Delaware corporation, and, subject to Article 9, its successors and assigns.

 

Issuer Order” means a written statement, request or order of the Issuer signed in its name by the chairman of the Board of Directors, the president or any vice president of the Issuer.

 

“Notice of Default” shall have the meaning set forth in Section 5.01(c).

 

Officer’s Certificate” means a certificate signed by the chairman of the Board of Directors, the president, any vice president, the treasurer, the secretary or any assistant secretary of the Issuer and delivered to the Trustee.  Each such certificate shall comply with Section 314 of the Trust Indenture Act of 1939 and, except to the extent provided herein, shall include the statements provided for in Section 11.05.

 

Opinion of Counsel” means an opinion in writing signed by the general corporate counsel or such other legal counsel who may be an employee of or counsel to the Issuer and who shall be satisfactory to the Trustee.  Each such opinion shall comply with Section 314 of the Trust Indenture Act of 1939 and shall include the statements provided for in Section 11.05, if and to the extent required hereby.

 

original issue date” of any Security (or portion thereof) means the earlier of (a) the date of such Security or (b) the date of any Security (or portion thereof) for which such Security was issued (directly or indirectly) on registration of transfer, exchange or substitution.

 

Original Issue Discount Security” means any Security that provides for an amount less than the principal amount thereof to be due and payable upon a declaration of acceleration of the maturity thereof pursuant to Section 5.01.

 

Outstanding”, when used with reference to Securities, shall, subject to the provisions of Section 7.04, mean, as of any particular time, all Securities authenticated and delivered by the Trustee under this Indenture, except

 

(a)                                 Securities theretofore cancelled by the Trustee or delivered to the Trustee for cancellation;

 

(b)                                 Securities, or portions thereof, for the payment or redemption of which cash, U.S. Government Obligations or Foreign Government Obligations (as provided for in Section 10.01(a) and Section 10.01(b)) in the necessary amount shall have been deposited in trust with the Trustee or with any paying agent (other than the Issuer) or shall have been set aside, segregated and held in trust by the Issuer for the Holders of such Securities (if the Issuer shall act as its own paying agent); provided, that if such Securities, or portions thereof, are to be redeemed prior to the maturity thereof, notice of such redemption shall have been given as

 

4



 

herein provided, or provision satisfactory to the Trustee shall have been made for giving such notice;

 

(c)                                  Securities as to which Legal Defeasance shall have been effected pursuant to Section 10.01(b);

 

(d)                                 Securities in substitution for which other Securities shall have been authenticated and delivered, or which shall have been paid, pursuant to the terms of Section 2.09 (except with respect to any such Security as to which proof satisfactory to the Trustee is presented that such Security is held by a Person in whose hands such Security is a legal, valid and binding obligation of the Issuer), Securities converted into Common Stock pursuant hereto and Securities not deemed outstanding pursuant to Section 12.02; and

 

(e)                                  Securities as to which any property deliverable upon conversion thereof has been delivered (or such delivery has been made available), or as to which any other particular conditions have been satisfied, in each case as may be provided for such Securities as contemplated in Section 2.03.

 

In determining whether the Holders of the requisite principal amount of Outstanding Securities of any or all series have given any request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent or waiver hereunder, (A) the principal amount of an Original Issue Discount Security that shall be deemed to be Outstanding for such purposes shall be the amount of the principal thereof that would be due and payable as of the date of such determination upon a declaration of acceleration of the maturity thereof pursuant to Section 5.01, (B) if, as of such date, the principal amount payable at the Stated Maturity of a Security is not determinable, the principal amount of such Security which shall be deemed to be Outstanding shall be the amount as specified or determined as contemplated by Section 2.03, and (C) the principal amount of a Security denominated in one or more foreign currencies, composite currencies or currency units which shall be deemed to be Outstanding shall be the U.S. dollar equivalent, determined as of such date in the manner provided as contemplated by Section 2.03, of the principal amount of such Security (or, in the case of a Security described in clause (A) or (B) above, of the amount determined as provided in such clause).

 

Person” means any individual, corporation, partnership, limited partnership, limited liability company, joint venture, association, joint stock company, trust, unincorporated organization or government or any agency or political subdivision thereof.

 

principal” whenever used with reference to the Securities or any Security or any portion thereof, shall be deemed to include “and premium, if any”.

 

“record date” shall have the meaning set forth in Section 2.07.

 

Responsible Officer”, when used with respect to the Trustee, means the chairman of the board of directors, any vice chairman of the board of directors, the chairman of the trust committee, the chairman of the executive committee, any vice chairman of the executive committee, the president, any vice president, the cashier, the secretary, the treasurer, any trust

 

5



 

officer, any assistant trust officer, any assistant vice president, any assistant cashier, any assistant secretary, any assistant treasurer, or any other officer or assistant officer of the Trustee customarily performing functions similar to those performed by the persons who at the time shall be such officers, respectively, or to whom any corporate trust matter is referred because of his or her knowledge of and familiarity with the particular subject.

 

Security” or “Securities” has the meaning stated in the first recital of this Indenture, or, as the case may be, Securities that have been authenticated and delivered under this Indenture.

 

Security Registrar” shall have the meaning set forth in Section 4.01(b).

 

Stated Maturity”, with respect to any Security or any installment of principal thereof or interest thereon or any Additional Amounts with respect thereto, means the date established by or pursuant to this Indenture or such Security as the fixed date on which the principal of such Security or such installment of principal or interest is, or such Additional Amounts are, due and payable.

 

Subsidiary” means any corporation or other entity (including, without limitation, partnerships, limited liability companies, joint ventures and associations) of which at least a majority of the outstanding Capital Stock having by the terms thereof (without regard to the occurrence or any contingency) ordinary voting power for the election of directors (or persons performing similar functions) of such corporation or other entity (irrespective of whether or not at the time the Capital Stock of any other class or classes of such corporation or other entity shall have or might have voting power by reason of the occurrence of any such contingency) is at the time directly or indirectly owned by the Issuer, or by one or more Subsidiaries of the Issuer, or by the Issuer and one or more other Subsidiaries of the Issuer.

 

Trust Indenture Act of 1939” (except as otherwise provided in Sections 8.01 and 8.02) means the Trust Indenture Act of 1939 as in force at the date as of which this Indenture was originally executed.

 

Trustee” means the Person identified as “Trustee” in the first paragraph hereof and, subject to the provisions of Article 6, shall also include any successor trustee.  “Trustee” shall also mean or include each Person who is then a trustee hereunder and if at any time there is more than one such Person, “Trustee” as used with respect to the Securities of any series shall mean the trustee with respect to the Securities of such series.

 

U.S. Government Obligation” means (a) a direct obligation of the United States of America, backed by its full faith and credit, or (b) an obligation of a Person controlled or supervised by and acting as an agency or instrumentality of the United States of America, the payment of which is unconditionally guaranteed as a full faith and credit obligation by the United States of America.

 

vice president”, when used with respect to the Issuer or the Trustee, means any vice president, whether or not designated by a number or a word or words added before or after the title of “vice president”.

 

6



 

Yield to Maturity” means the yield to maturity on a series of securities, calculated at the time of issuance of such series, or, if applicable, at the most recent redetermination of interest on such series, and calculated in accordance with accepted financial practice.

 

ARTICLE 2
SECURITIES

 

Section 2.01          Forms Generally.  The Securities of each series shall be substantially in such form (not inconsistent with this Indenture) as shall be established by or pursuant to one or more Board Resolutions (as set forth in a Board Resolution or, to the extent established pursuant to (rather than set forth in) a Board Resolution, an Officer’s Certificate detailing such establishment) or in one or more indentures supplemental hereto, in each case with such appropriate insertions, omissions, substitutions and other variations as are required or permitted by this Indenture and may have imprinted or otherwise reproduced thereon such legend or legends or endorsements, not inconsistent with the provisions of this Indenture, as may be required to comply with any law or with any rules or regulations pursuant thereto, or with any rules of any securities exchange or to conform to general usage, all as may be determined by the officers executing such Securities as evidenced by their execution of such Securities.

 

The definitive Securities shall be printed, lithographed or engraved on steel engraved borders or may be produced in any other manner, all as determined by the officers executing such Securities as evidenced by their execution of such Securities.

 

Section 2.02          Form of Trustee’s Certificate of Authentication.  The Trustee’s certificate of authentication on all Securities shall be in substantially the following form:

 

This is one of the Securities of the series designated herein and referred to in the within-mentioned Indenture.

 

 

 

 

 

as Trustee

 

 

 

 

 

By:

 

 

 

Authorized Officer

 

Section 2.03          Amount Unlimited; Issuable in Series.  The aggregate principal amount of Securities which may be authenticated and delivered under this Indenture is unlimited.

 

The Securities may be issued in one or more series.  The terms of a series of Securities shall be established prior to the initial issuance thereof in or pursuant to one or more Board Resolutions, or, to the extent established pursuant to (rather than set forth in) a Board Resolution, in an Officer’s Certificate detailing such establishment and/or established in one or more indentures supplemental hereto.  The terms of such series reflected in such Board Resolution, Officer’s Certificate, or supplemental indenture may include the following or any additional or different terms:

 

7



 

(a)                                 the designation of the Securities of the series (which may be part of a series of Securities previously issued);

 

(b)                                 any limit upon the aggregate principal amount of the Securities of the series that may be authenticated and delivered under this Indenture (except for Securities authenticated and delivered upon registration of transfer of, or in exchange for, or in lieu of, other Securities of the series pursuant to Section 2.08, 2.09, 2.11, 8.05 or 12.03);

 

(c)                                  the date or dates on which the principal of the Securities of the series is payable or the method used to determine those dates and the right, if any, to extend such date or dates;

 

(d)                                 the rate or rates at which the Securities of the series shall bear interest, if any or the method by which such rate or rates shall be determined; the record date or dates for the determination of holders to whom interest is payable; the date or dates from which such interest shall accrue and on which such interest shall be payable, or the method by which such date or dates shall be determined; the right, if any, to extend the interest payment periods and the duration of that extension; and the basis upon which interest shall be calculated if other than that of a 360-day year of twelve 30-day months;

 

(e)                                  the place or places where the principal of and any interest on Securities of the series shall be payable (if other than as provided in Section 3.02);

 

(f)                                   the obligation or the right, if any, of the Issuer to redeem, purchase or repay Securities of the series pursuant to any mandatory redemption, sinking fund or analogous provisions or at the option of a Holder thereof and the price or prices at which and the period or periods within which and any terms and conditions upon which Securities of the series shall be redeemed, purchased or repaid, in whole or in part, pursuant to such obligation or right;

 

(g)                                  if other than denominations of $2,000 and any integral multiple of $1,000 in excess thereof, the denominations in which Securities of the series shall be issuable;

 

(h)                                 if other than the principal amount thereof, the portion of the principal amount of Securities of the series which shall be payable upon declaration of acceleration of the maturity thereof;

 

(i)                                     if other than Dollars, the currency, currencies or currency units in which the Securities of the series are denominated;

 

(j)                                    if other than the currency in which the Securities of the series are denominated, the currency in which payment of the principal of or interest on the Securities of such series shall be payable;

 

8



 

(k)                                 if the principal of or interest on the Securities of the series is to be payable, at the election of the Issuer or a Holder thereof, in a currency other than that in which the Securities are denominated, the period or periods within which, and the terms and conditions upon which, such election may be made;

 

(l)                                     if the amount of payments of principal of and interest on the Securities of the series may be determined by reference to an index based on a currency other than that in which the Securities of the series are denominated, or by reference to one or more currency exchange rates, securities or baskets of securities, commodity prices or indices, the manner in which such amounts shall be determined;

 

(m)                             the terms and conditions, if applicable, upon which conversion or exchange of the Securities into Common Stock will be effected, including the initial conversion or exchange price or rate and any adjustments thereto, the conversion or exchange period and other provisions in addition to or in lieu of those described herein;

 

(n)                                 if the Securities of the series may be issued in exchange for surrendered Securities of another series, or for other securities of the Issuer, pursuant to the terms of such Securities or securities or of any agreement entered into by the Issuer, the ratio of the principal amount of the Securities of the series to be issued to the principal amount of the Securities or securities to be surrendered in exchange, and any other material terms of the exchange;

 

(o)                                 if Sections 10.01(b) or 10.01(c) are inapplicable to Securities of such series;

 

(p)                                 whether and under what circumstances the Issuer will pay Additional Amounts on the Securities and, if so, whether the Issuer will have the option to redeem such Securities rather than pay such additional amounts;

 

(q)                                 if the Securities of such series are to be issuable in definitive form (whether upon original issue or upon exchange of a temporary Security of such series) only upon receipt of certain certificates or other documents or satisfaction of other conditions, then the form and terms of such certificates, documents or conditions;

 

(r)                                    any trustees, authenticating or paying agents, transfer agents or registrars or any other agents with respect to the Securities of such series;

 

(s)                                   any other events of default or covenants with respect to the Securities of such series in addition to or in lieu of those contained in this Indenture; and

 

(t)                                    any other terms of the series.

 

9



 

The Issuer may from time to time, without notice to or the consent of the holders of any series of Securities, create and issue further Securities of any such series ranking equally with the Securities of such series in all respects (or in all respects other than (1) the payment of interest accruing prior to the issue date of such further Securities or (2) the first payment of interest following the issue date of such further Securities).  Such further Securities may be consolidated and form a single series with the Securities of such series and have the same terms as to status, redemption or otherwise as the Securities of such series.

 

Section 2.04          Authentication and Delivery of Securities.  The Issuer may deliver Securities of any series executed by the Issuer to the Trustee for authentication together with the applicable documents referred to below in this Section, and the Trustee shall thereupon authenticate and deliver such Securities to or upon the order of the Issuer (contained in the Issuer Order referred to below in this Section) or pursuant to such procedures acceptable to the Trustee and to such recipients as may be specified from time to time by an Issuer Order.  The maturity date, original issue date, interest rate and any other terms of the Securities of such series shall be determined by or pursuant to such Issuer Order and procedures.  If provided for in such procedures, such Issuer Order may authorize authentication and delivery pursuant to oral instructions from the Issuer or its duly authorized agent, which instructions shall be promptly confirmed in writing.  In authenticating such Securities and accepting the additional responsibilities under this Indenture in relation to such Securities, the Trustee shall be entitled to receive, and (subject to Section 6.01) shall be fully protected in relying upon:

 

(a)                                 an Issuer Order requesting such authentication and setting forth delivery instructions if the Securities are not to be delivered to the Issuer;

 

(b)                                 any Board Resolution, Officer’s Certificate and/or executed supplemental indenture referred to in Sections 2.01 and 2.03 by or pursuant to which the forms and terms of the Securities were established;

 

(c)                                  an Officer’s Certificate setting forth the form or forms and terms of the Securities stating that the form or forms and terms of the Securities have been established pursuant to Sections 2.01 and 2.03 and comply with this Indenture, and covering such other matters as the Trustee may reasonably request; and

 

(d)                                 an Opinion of Counsel to the effect that:

 

(i)                                     the form or forms and terms of such Securities have been established pursuant to Sections 2.01 and 2.03 and comply with this Indenture,

 

(ii)                                  the authentication and delivery of such Securities by the Trustee are authorized under the provisions of this Indenture, and

 

(iii)                               such Securities when authenticated and delivered by the Trustee and issued by the Issuer in the manner and subject to any conditions specified in such Opinion of Counsel, will constitute valid and binding obligations of the Issuer,

 

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and covering such other matters as the Trustee may reasonably request.

 

The Trustee shall have the right to decline to authenticate and deliver any Securities under this Section if the Trustee, being advised by counsel, determines that such action may not lawfully be taken by the Issuer or if the Trustee in good faith by its board of directors or board of trustees, executive committee, or a trust committee of directors or trustees or Responsible Officers shall determine that such action would expose the Trustee to personal liability to existing Holders or would affect the Trustee’s own rights, duties or immunities under the Securities, this Indenture or otherwise.

 

The Issuer shall execute and the Trustee shall, in accordance with this Section with respect to the Securities of a series, authenticate and deliver one or more Global Securities that (i) shall represent and shall be denominated in an amount equal to the aggregate principal amount of all of the Securities of such series issued and not yet cancelled, (ii) shall be registered in the name of the Depositary for such Global Security or Securities or the nominee of such Depositary, (iii) shall be delivered by the Trustee to such Depositary or pursuant to such Depositary’s instructions and (iv) shall bear a legend substantially to the following effect:

 

“UNLESS AND UNTIL IT IS EXCHANGED IN WHOLE OR IN PART FOR SECURITIES IN DEFINITIVE REGISTERED FORM, THIS SECURITY MAY NOT BE TRANSFERRED EXCEPT AS A WHOLE BY THE DEPOSITARY TO A NOMINEE OF THE DEPOSITARY OR BY A NOMINEE OF THE DEPOSITARY TO THE DEPOSITARY OR ANOTHER NOMINEE OF THE DEPOSITARY OR BY THE DEPOSITARY OR ANY SUCH NOMINEE TO A SUCCESSOR DEPOSITARY OR A NOMINEE OF SUCH SUCCESSOR DEPOSITARY.”

 

Each Depositary designated pursuant to this Section must, at the time of its designation and at all times while it serves as Depositary, be a clearing agency registered under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended and any other applicable statute or regulation.

 

Section 2.05          Execution of Securities.  The Securities shall be signed on behalf of the Issuer by the chairman of its Board of Directors, any vice chairman of its Board of Directors, its chief executive officer, its principal financial officer, its president, any vice president or its treasurer.  Such signatures may be the manual or facsimile signatures of the present or any future such officers.  Typographical and other minor errors or defects in any such reproduction of any such signature shall not affect the validity or enforceability of any Security that has been duly authenticated and delivered by the Trustee.

 

In case any officer of the Issuer who shall have signed any of the Securities shall cease to be such officer before the Security so signed shall be authenticated and delivered by the Trustee or disposed of by the Issuer, such Security nevertheless may be authenticated and delivered or disposed of as though the person who signed such Security had not ceased to be such officer of the Issuer; and any Security may be signed on behalf of the Issuer by such persons as, at the actual date of the execution of such Security, shall be the proper officers of the Issuer, although at the date of the execution and delivery of this Indenture any such person was not such an officer.

 

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Section 2.06          Certificate of Authentication.  Only such Securities as shall bear thereon a certificate of authentication substantially in the form hereinbefore recited, executed by the Trustee by the manual signature of one of its authorized officers, shall be entitled to the benefits of this Indenture or be valid or obligatory for any purpose.  The execution of such certificate by the Trustee upon any Security executed by the Issuer shall be conclusive evidence that the Security so authenticated has been duly authenticated and delivered hereunder and that the Holder is entitled to the benefits of this Indenture.

 

Section 2.07          Denomination and Date of Securities; Payments of Interest.  The Securities of each series shall be issuable in denominations established as contemplated by Section 2.03 or, if not so established, in denominations of $2,000 and any integral multiple of $1,000 thereof.  The Securities of each series shall be numbered, lettered or otherwise distinguished in such manner or in accordance with such plan as the officers of the Issuer executing the same may determine with the approval of the Trustee, as evidenced by the execution and authentication thereof.  Unless otherwise indicated in a Board Resolution, Officer’s Certificate or supplemental indenture for a particular series, interest will be calculated on the basis of a 360-day year of twelve 30-day months.

 

Each Security shall be dated the date of its authentication.  The Securities of each series shall bear interest, if any, from the date, and such interest shall be payable on the dates, established as contemplated by Section 2.03.

 

The Person in whose name any Security of any series is registered at the close of business on any record date applicable to a particular series with respect to any Interest Payment Date for such series shall be entitled to receive the interest, if any, payable on such Interest Payment Date notwithstanding any transfer, exchange or conversion of such Security subsequent to the record date and prior to such Interest Payment Date, except if and to the extent the Issuer shall default in the payment of the interest due on such Interest Payment Date for such series, in which case such defaulted interest shall be paid to the Persons in whose names Outstanding Securities for such series are registered at the close of business on a subsequent record date (which shall be not less than five Business Days prior to the date of payment of such defaulted interest) established by notice given by or on behalf of the Issuer to the Holders of Securities not less than 15 days preceding such subsequent record date.  The term “record date” as used with respect to any Interest Payment Date (except a date for payment of defaulted interest) for the Securities of any series shall mean the date specified as such in the terms of the Securities of such series established as contemplated by Section 2.03, or, if no such date is so specified, if such Interest Payment Date is the first day of a calendar month, the 15th day of the immediately preceding calendar month or, if such Interest Payment Date is the 15th day of a calendar month, the first day of such calendar month, whether or not such record date is a Business Day.

 

Section 2.08          Registration, Transfer and Exchange.  The Issuer will keep at each office or agency to be maintained for the purpose as provided in Section 3.02 for each series of Securities a register or registers in which, subject to such reasonable regulations as it may prescribe, it will provide for the registration of Securities of such series and the registration of transfer of Securities of such series.  Such register shall be in written form in the English language or in any other form capable of being converted into such form within a reasonable

 

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time.  At all reasonable times such register or registers shall be open for inspection by the Trustee.

 

Upon due presentation for registration of transfer of any Security of any series at any such office or agency to be maintained for the purpose as provided in Section 3.02, the Issuer shall execute and the Trustee shall authenticate and deliver in the name of the transferee or transferees a new Security or Securities of the same series, maturity date, interest rate and original issue date in authorized denominations for a like aggregate principal amount.

 

At the option of the Holder thereof, Securities of any series (except a Global Security) may be exchanged for a Security or Securities of such series having authorized denominations and an equal aggregate principal amount, upon surrender of such Securities to be exchanged at the agency of the Issuer that shall be maintained for such purpose in accordance with Section 3.02 and upon payment, if the Issuer shall so require, of the charges hereinafter provided.  Whenever any Securities are so surrendered for exchange, the Issuer shall execute, and the Trustee shall authenticate and deliver, the Securities which the Holder making the exchange is entitled to receive.  All Securities surrendered upon any exchange or transfer provided for in this Indenture shall be promptly cancelled and disposed of by the Trustee and the Trustee will deliver a certificate of disposition thereof to the Issuer.

 

All Securities presented for registration of transfer, exchange, redemption or payment shall (if so required by the Issuer or the Trustee) be duly endorsed by, or be accompanied by a written instrument or instruments of transfer in form satisfactory to the Issuer and the Trustee duly executed by, the Holder or his or her attorney duly authorized in writing.

 

The Issuer may require payment of a sum sufficient to cover any stamp or other tax or other governmental charge that may be imposed in connection with any exchange or registration of transfer of Securities.  No service charge shall be made for any such transaction.

 

The Issuer shall not be required to exchange or register a transfer of (a) any Securities of any series for a period of 15 days immediately preceding the first delivery of notice of redemption of Securities of such series to be redeemed or (b) any Securities selected, called or being called for redemption, in whole or in part, except, in the case of any Security to be redeemed in part, the portion thereof not so to be redeemed.

 

Notwithstanding any other provision of this Section 2.08, unless and until it is exchanged in whole or in part for Securities in definitive registered form, a Global Security representing all or a portion of the Securities of a series may not be transferred except as a whole by the Depositary for such series to a nominee of such Depositary or by a nominee of such Depositary to such Depositary or another nominee of such Depositary or by such Depositary or any such nominee to a successor Depositary for such series or a nominee of such successor Depositary.

 

If at any time the Depositary for the Securities of a series notifies the Issuer that it is unwilling or unable to continue as Depositary for the Securities of such series or if at any time the Depositary for the Securities of a series shall no longer be eligible under Section 2.04, the Issuer shall appoint a successor Depositary with respect to the Securities of such series.  If a successor Depositary for the Securities of such series is not appointed by the Issuer within 90

 

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days after the Issuer receives such notice or becomes aware of such ineligibility, the Issuer’s determination pursuant to Section 2.03 that the Securities of such series be represented by a Global Security shall no longer be effective and the Issuer will execute, and the Trustee, upon receipt of an Officer’s Certificate for the authentication and delivery of definitive Securities of such series, will authenticate and deliver, Securities of such series in definitive registered form, in any authorized denominations, in an aggregate principal amount equal to the principal amount of the Global Security or Securities representing the Securities of such series, in exchange for such Global Security or Securities.

 

The Issuer may at any time and in its sole discretion determine that the Securities of any series issued in the form of one or more Global Securities shall no longer be represented by a Global Security or Securities.  In such event the Issuer will execute, and the Trustee, upon receipt of an Officer’s Certificate for the authentication and delivery of definitive Securities of such series, will authenticate and deliver, Securities of such series in definitive registered form, in any authorized denominations, in an aggregate principal amount equal to the principal amount of the Global Security or Securities representing such series, in exchange for such Global Security or Securities.

 

The Depositary for such Global Security may surrender such Global Security in exchange in whole or in part for Securities of the same series in definitive registered form in accordance with the two preceding paragraphs or on such other terms as are acceptable to the Issuer and such Depositary.  Thereupon, the Issuer shall execute, and the Trustee shall authenticate and deliver, without service charge,

 

(i)                                     to the Person specified by such Depositary a new Security or Securities of the same series, of any authorized denominations as requested by such Person, in an aggregate principal amount equal to and in exchange for such Person’s beneficial interest in the Global Security; and

 

(ii)                                  to such Depositary a new Global Security in a denomination equal to the difference, if any, between the principal amount of the surrendered Global Security and the aggregate principal amount of Securities authenticated and delivered pursuant to clause (i) above.

 

Upon the exchange of a Global Security for Securities in definitive registered form, in authorized denominations, such Global Security shall be cancelled by the Trustee.  Securities in definitive registered form issued in exchange for a Global Security pursuant to this Section 2.08 shall be registered in such names and in such authorized denominations as the Depositary for such Global Security, pursuant to instructions from its direct or indirect participants or otherwise, shall instruct the Trustee.  The Trustee shall deliver such Securities to or as directed by the Persons in whose names such Securities are so registered.

 

All Securities issued upon any transfer or exchange of Securities shall be valid obligations of the Issuer, evidencing the same debt, and entitled to the same benefits under this Indenture, as the Securities surrendered upon such transfer or exchange.

 

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Section 2.09          Mutilated, Defaced, Destroyed, Lost and Stolen Securities.  In case any temporary or definitive Security shall become mutilated or defaced or be destroyed, lost or stolen, the Issuer in its discretion may execute, and upon the written request of any officer of the Issuer, the Trustee shall authenticate and deliver a new Security of the same series, maturity date, interest rate and original issue date, bearing a number or other distinguishing symbol not contemporaneously outstanding, in exchange and substitution for the mutilated or defaced Security, or in lieu of and substitution for the Security so destroyed, lost or stolen.  In every case the applicant for a substitute Security shall furnish to the Issuer and to the Trustee and any agent of the Issuer or the Trustee such security or indemnity as may be required by them to indemnify and defend and to save each of them harmless and, in every case of destruction, loss or theft, evidence to their satisfaction of the destruction, loss or theft of such Security and of the ownership thereof and in the case of mutilation or defacement shall surrender the Security to the Trustee.

 

Upon the issuance of any substitute Security, the Issuer may require the payment of a sum sufficient to cover any tax or other governmental charge that may be imposed in relation thereto and any other expenses (including the fees and expenses of the Trustee) connected therewith.  In case any Security which has matured or is about to mature or has been called for redemption in full, or is being surrendered for conversion in full, shall become mutilated or defaced or be destroyed, lost or stolen, the Issuer may, instead of issuing a substitute Security (with the Holder’s consent, in the case of convertible Securities), pay or authorize the payment of the same or convert, or authorize conversion of the same (without surrender thereof except in the case of a mutilated or defaced Security), if the applicant for such payment shall furnish to the Issuer and to the Trustee and any agent of the Issuer or the Trustee such security or indemnity as any of them may require to save each of them harmless, and, in every case of destruction, loss or theft, the applicant shall also furnish to the Issuer and the Trustee and any agent of the Issuer or the Trustee evidence to their satisfaction of the destruction, loss or theft of such Security and of the ownership thereof.

 

Every substitute Security of any series issued pursuant to the provisions of this Section by virtue of the fact that any such Security is destroyed, lost or stolen shall constitute an additional contractual obligation of the Issuer, whether or not the destroyed, lost or stolen Security shall be at any time enforceable by anyone and shall be entitled to all the benefits of (but shall be subject to all the limitations of rights set forth in) this Indenture equally and proportionately with any and all other Securities of such series duly authenticated and delivered hereunder.  All Securities shall be held and owned upon the express condition that, to the extent permitted by law, the foregoing provisions are exclusive with respect to the replacement or payment or conversion of mutilated, defaced or destroyed, lost or stolen Securities and shall preclude any and all other rights or remedies notwithstanding any law or statute existing or hereafter enacted to the contrary with respect to the replacement or payment of negotiable instruments or other securities without their surrender.

 

Section 2.10          Cancellation of Securities; Destruction Thereof.  All Securities surrendered for exchange for Securities of the same series or for payment, redemption, registration of transfer or conversion or for credit against any payment in respect of a sinking or analogous fund, if surrendered to the Issuer or any agent of the Issuer or the Trustee, shall be delivered to the Trustee for cancellation or, if surrendered to the Trustee, shall be cancelled by it;

 

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and no Securities shall be issued in lieu thereof except as expressly permitted by any of the provisions of this Indenture.  The Trustee shall dispose of cancelled Securities held by it and deliver a certificate of disposition to the Issuer.  If the Issuer shall acquire any of the Securities, such acquisition shall not operate as a redemption or satisfaction of the Debt represented by such Securities unless and until the same are delivered to the Trustee for cancellation.

 

Section 2.11          Temporary Securities.  Pending the preparation of definitive Securities for any series, the Issuer may execute and the Trustee shall authenticate and deliver temporary Securities for such series (printed, lithographed, typewritten or otherwise reproduced, in each case in form satisfactory to the Trustee).  Temporary Securities of any series shall be issuable in any authorized denomination, and substantially in the form of the definitive Securities of such series but with such omissions, insertions and variations as may be appropriate for temporary Securities, all as may be determined by the Issuer with the concurrence of the Trustee as evidenced by the execution and authentication thereof.  Temporary Securities may contain such reference to any provisions of this Indenture as may be appropriate.  Every temporary Security shall be executed by the Issuer and be authenticated by the Trustee upon the same conditions and in substantially the same manner, and with like effect, as the definitive Securities.  Without unreasonable delay the Issuer shall execute and shall furnish definitive Securities of such series and thereupon temporary Securities of such series may be surrendered in exchange therefor without charge at each office or agency to be maintained by the Issuer for that purpose pursuant to Section 3.02 and the Trustee shall authenticate and deliver in exchange for such temporary Securities of such series an equal aggregate principal amount of definitive Securities of the same series having authorized denominations.  Until so exchanged, the temporary Securities of any series shall be entitled to the same benefits under this Indenture as definitive Securities of such series, unless the benefits of the temporary Securities are limited pursuant to Section 2.03.

 

ARTICLE 3
COVENANTS OF THE ISSUER

 

Section 3.01          Payment of Principal and Interest.  The Issuer covenants and agrees for the benefit of each series of Securities that it will duly and punctually pay or cause to be paid the principal of, and interest on, each of the Securities of such series (together with any additional amounts payable pursuant to the terms of such Securities) at the place or places, at the respective times and in the manner provided in such Securities and in this Indenture.  The interest on Securities (together with any additional amounts payable pursuant to the terms of such Securities) shall be payable only to or upon the written order of the Holders thereof and at the option of the Issuer may be paid by mailing checks for such interest payable to or upon the written order of such Holders at their last addresses as they appear on the Security register of the Issuer.

 

Section 3.02          Offices for Payments, Etc.  The Issuer will maintain (i) in        , an agency where the Securities of each series may be presented for payment, an agency where the Securities of each series may be presented for exchange and conversion, if applicable, as provided in this Indenture and an agency where the Securities of each series may be presented for registration of transfer as in this Indenture provided and (ii) such further agencies in such places as may be determined for the Securities of such series pursuant to Section 2.03.

 

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The Issuer will maintain in           , an agency where notices and demands to or upon the Issuer in respect of the Securities of any series or this Indenture may be served.

 

The Issuer will give to the Trustee written notice of the location of each such agency and of any change of location thereof.  In case the Issuer shall fail to maintain any agency required by this Section to be located in           , or shall fail to give such notice of the location or of any change in the location of any of the above agencies, presentations and demands may be made and notices may be served at the Corporate Trust Office of the Trustee.

 

The Issuer may from time to time designate one or more additional agencies where the Securities of a series may be presented for payment, where the Securities of that series may be presented for exchange or conversion, if applicable, as provided in this Indenture and pursuant to Section 2.03 and where the Securities of that series may be presented for registration of transfer as in this Indenture provided, and the Issuer may from time to time rescind any such designation, as the Issuer may deem desirable or expedient; provided, however, that no such designation or rescission shall in any manner relieve the Issuer of its obligation to maintain the agencies provided for in this Section.  The Issuer will give to the Trustee prompt written notice of any such designation or rescission thereof.

 

Section 3.03          Appointment to Fill a Vacancy in Office of Trustee.  The Issuer, whenever necessary to avoid or fill a vacancy in the office of Trustee, will appoint, in the manner provided in Section 6.10, a Trustee, so that there shall at all times be a Trustee with respect to each series of Securities hereunder.

 

Section 3.04          Paying Agents.  Whenever the Issuer shall appoint a paying agent other than the Trustee with respect to the Securities of any series, it will cause such paying agent to execute and deliver to the Trustee an instrument in which such agent shall agree with the Trustee, subject to the provisions of this Section,

 

(a)                                 that it will hold all sums received by it as such agent for the payment of the principal of or interest on the Securities of such series (whether such sums have been paid to it by the Issuer or by any other obligor on the Securities of such series) in trust for the benefit of the Holders of the Securities of such series or of the Trustee,

 

(b)                                 that it will give the Trustee notice of any failure by the Issuer (or by any other obligor on the Securities of such series) to make any payment of the principal of or interest on the Securities of such series when the same shall be due and payable, and

 

(c)                                  that at any time during the continuance of any such failure, upon the written request of the Trustee, it will forthwith pay to the Trustee all sums so held in trust by such paying agent.

 

The Issuer will, on or prior to each due date of the principal of or interest on the Securities of such series, deposit with the paying agent a sum sufficient to pay such principal or interest so becoming due, and (unless such paying agent is the Trustee) the Issuer will promptly notify the Trustee of any failure to take such action.

 

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If the Issuer shall act as its own paying agent with respect to the Securities of any series, it will, on or before each due date of the principal of or interest on the Securities of such series, set aside, segregate and hold in trust for the benefit of the Holders of the Securities of such series a sum sufficient to pay such principal or interest so becoming due.  The Issuer will promptly notify the Trustee of any failure to take such action.

 

Anything in this Section to the contrary notwithstanding, but subject to Section 10.01, the Issuer may at any time, for the purpose of obtaining a satisfaction and discharge with respect to one or more or all series of Securities hereunder, or for any other reason, pay or cause to be paid to the Trustee all sums held in trust for any such series by the Issuer or any paying agent hereunder, as required by this Section, such sums to be held by the Trustee upon the trusts herein contained.

 

Anything in this Section to the contrary notwithstanding, the agreement to hold sums in trust as provided in this Section is subject to the provisions of Sections 10.03 and 10.04.

 

Section 3.05          Written Statement to Trustee.  So long as any Securities are Outstanding hereunder, the Issuer will deliver to the Trustee, within 120 days after the end of each fiscal year of the Issuer ending after the date hereof, a written certificate covering the previous fiscal year, (which need not comply with Section 11.05), signed by its principal executive officer, principal financial officer or principal accounting officer, stating whether or not, to the best knowledge of such officer, the Issuer is in default in the performance and observance of any of the terms, provisions and conditions of this Indenture (without regard to any period of grace or requirement of notice provided hereunder) and, if the Issuer shall be in default, specifying all such defaults and the nature and status thereof of which they may have knowledge.

 

ARTICLE 4
SECURITYHOLDERS LISTS AND REPORTS BY THE ISSUER AND THE TRUSTEE

 

Section 4.01          Issuer to Furnish Trustee Information as to Names and Addresses of Securityholders.  The Issuer covenants and agrees that it will furnish or cause to be furnished to the Trustee a list in such form as the Trustee may reasonably require of the names and addresses of the Holders of the Securities of each series pursuant to Section 312 of the Trust Indenture Act of 1939:

 

(a)                                 semiannually and not more than 15 days after each record date for the payment of interest on such Securities, as hereinabove specified, as of such record date and on dates to be determined pursuant to Section 2.03 for non-interest bearing Securities in each year, and

 

(b)                                 at such other times as the Trustee may request in writing, within 30 days after receipt by the Issuer of any such request as of a date not more than 15 days prior to the time such information is furnished, provided, that, if and so long as the Trustee shall be the Security registrar (the “Security Registrar”) for such series, such list shall not be required to be furnished.

 

Section 4.02          Reports by the Issuer.  The Issuer covenants to comply with Section 314(a) of the Trust Indenture Act of 1939 insofar as it relates to information, documentation and

 

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other reports which the Issuer may be required to file with the Commission pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended.

 

Section 4.03          Reports by the Trustee.  Any Trustee’s report required under Section 313(a) of the Trust Indenture Act of 1939 shall be transmitted on or before        in each year following the date hereof, so long as any Securities are Outstanding hereunder, and shall be dated as of a date convenient to the Trustee but no more than 60 nor less than 45 days prior thereto.  The Trustee shall comply with Sections 313(b), 313(c) and 313(d) of the Trust Indenture Act of 1939.

 

Section 4.04          Preservation of Information; Communication with Securityholders.  (a) The Trustee shall preserve, in as current a form as is reasonably practicable, all information as to the names and addresses of the Holders of Securities contained in the most recent list furnished to it as provided in Section 4.01 and as to the names and addresses of holders of Securities received by the Trustee in its capacity as Security Registrar (if acting in such capacity).

 

(b)                                 The Trustee may destroy any list furnished to it as provided in Section 4.01 upon receipt of a new list so furnished.

 

(c)                                  Securityholders may communicate as provided in Section 312(b) of the Trust Indenture Act of 1939 with other Securityholders with respect to their rights under this Indenture or under the Securities.  The Issuer, the Trustee, the Security Registrar and any other Person shall have the protection of Section 312(c) of the Trust Indenture Act of 1939.

 

ARTICLE 5
REMEDIES OF THE TRUSTEE AND SECURITYHOLDERS ON EVENT OF DEFAULT

 

Section 5.01          Event of Default Defined; Acceleration of Maturity; Waiver of Default.  Event of Default”, with respect to Securities of any series wherever used herein, means any one of the following events which shall have occurred and be continuing (whatever the reason for such Event of Default and whether it shall be voluntary or involuntary or be effected by operation of law or pursuant to any judgment, decree or order of any court or any order, rule or regulation of any administrative or governmental body):

 

(a)                                 default in the payment of any installment of interest upon any of the Securities of such series as and when the same shall become due and payable, and continuance of such default for a period of 30 days (or such other period as may be established for the Securities of such series as contemplated by Section 2.03); or

 

(b)                                 default in the payment of all or any part of the principal on any of the Securities of such series as and when the same shall become due and payable either at maturity, upon redemption, by declaration or otherwise (and, if established for the Securities of such series as contemplated by Section 2.03, the continuance of such default for a specified period); or

 

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(c)                                  default in the performance, or breach, of any covenant or agreement of the Issuer in respect of the Securities of such series (other than a covenant or agreement in respect of the Securities of such series a default in the performance or breach of which is elsewhere in this Section specifically dealt with), and continuance of such default or breach for a period of 90 days after there has been given, by registered or certified mail, to the Issuer by the Trustee or to the Issuer and the Trustee by the Holders of at least 25% in principal amount of the Outstanding Securities of such series, a written notice specifying such default or breach and requiring it to be remedied and stating that such notice is a “Notice of Default” hereunder; or

 

(d)                                 a court having jurisdiction in the premises shall enter a decree or order for relief in respect of the Issuer in an involuntary case under any applicable bankruptcy, insolvency or other similar law now or hereafter in effect, or appointing a receiver, liquidator, assignee, custodian, trustee or sequestrator (or similar official) of the Issuer or for all or substantially all of its property and assets or ordering the winding up or liquidation of its affairs, and such decree or order shall remain unstayed and in effect for a period of 90 consecutive days; or

 

(e)                                  the Issuer shall commence a voluntary case under any applicable bankruptcy, insolvency or other similar law now or hereafter in effect, or consent to the entry of an order for relief in an involuntary case under any such law, or consent to the appointment of or taking possession by a receiver, liquidator, assignee, custodian, trustee or sequestrator (or similar official) of the Issuer or for any substantial part of its property and assets, or make any general assignment for the benefit of creditors; or

 

(f)                                   any other Event of Default provided for in such series of Securities.

 

If an Event of Default described in clauses (a), (b), (c) or (f) occurs and is continuing, then, and in each and every such case, unless the principal of all of the Securities of such series shall have already become due and payable, either the Trustee or the Holders of not less than 25% in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of such series then Outstanding hereunder (each such series voting as a separate class) by notice in writing to the Issuer (and also to the Trustee if given by Securityholders), may declare the entire principal (or, if the Securities of such series are Original Issue Discount Securities, such portion of the principal amount as may be specified in the terms of such series) of all Securities of such series and the interest accrued thereon, if any, to be due and payable immediately, and upon any such declaration the same shall become immediately due and payable.  If an Event of Default described in clauses (d) or (e) occurs and is continuing, then and in each and every such case, the entire principal (or, if any Securities are Original Issue Discount Securities, such portion of the principal as may be specified in the terms thereof) of all the Securities then Outstanding and interest accrued thereon, if any, shall automatically become immediately due and payable.

 

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The foregoing provisions, however, are subject to the condition that if, at any time after the principal of the Securities of any series shall have been so declared due and payable, and before any judgment or decree for the payment of the moneys due shall have been obtained or entered as hereinafter provided, the Issuer shall pay or shall deposit with the Trustee a sum sufficient to pay all matured installments of interest upon all the Securities of such series and the principal of any and all Securities of such series which shall have become due otherwise than by acceleration (with interest upon such principal and, to the extent that payment of such interest is enforceable under applicable law, on overdue installments of interest, at the same rate as the rate of interest specified in the Securities of such series to the date of such payment or deposit) and such amount as shall be sufficient to cover reasonable compensation to the Trustee, its agents, attorneys and counsel, and all other expenses and liabilities incurred, and all advances made, by the Trustee except as a result of negligence or bad faith, and if any and all Events of Default under the Indenture with respect to such series, other than the non-payment of the principal of Securities of such series which shall have become due solely by such acceleration, shall have been cured, waived or otherwise remedied as provided herein, then and in every such case the Holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of all the Securities of such series then Outstanding, by written notice to the Issuer and to the Trustee, may waive all defaults with respect to such series and rescind and annul such declaration and its consequences, but no such waiver or rescission and annulment shall extend to or shall affect any subsequent default or shall impair any right consequent thereon.

 

Unless otherwise indicated in the Board Resolution, Officer’s Certificate or supplemental indenture for a series of Original Issue Discount Securities, for all purposes under this Indenture, if a portion of the principal of any Original Issue Discount Securities shall have been accelerated and declared due and payable pursuant to the provisions hereof, then, from and after such declaration, unless such declaration has been rescinded and annulled, the principal amount of such Original Issue Discount Securities shall be deemed, for all purposes hereunder, to be such portion of the principal thereof as shall be due and payable as a result of such acceleration, and payment of such portion of the principal thereof as shall be due and payable as a result of such acceleration, together with interest, if any, thereon and all other amounts owing thereunder, shall constitute payment in full of such Original Issue Discount Securities.

 

Section 5.02                             Collection of Debt by Trustee; Trustee May Prove Debt.  The Issuer covenants that (a) in case default shall be made in the payment of any installment of interest on any of the Securities of any series when such interest shall have become due and payable, and such default shall have continued for a period of 30 days or (b) in case default shall be made in the payment of all or any part of the principal of any of the Securities of any series when the same shall have become due and payable, whether upon maturity of the Securities of such series or upon any redemption or by declaration or otherwise, then, upon demand of the Trustee, the Issuer will pay to the Trustee for the benefit of the Holders of the Securities of such series the whole amount that then shall have become due and payable on all Securities of such series for principal or interest, as the case may be (with interest to the date of such payment upon the overdue principal and, to the extent that payment of such interest is enforceable under applicable law, on overdue installments of interest at the same rate as the rate of interest or Yield to Maturity (in the case of Original Issue Discount Securities) specified in the Securities of such series); and, in addition thereto, such further amount as shall be sufficient to cover the costs and expenses of collection, including reasonable compensation to the Trustee and each predecessor

 

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trustee, their respective agents, attorneys and counsel, and any expenses and liabilities incurred, and all advances made, by the Trustee and each predecessor trustee except as a result of its negligence or bad faith.

 

In case the Issuer shall fail forthwith to pay such amounts upon such demand, the Trustee, in its own name and as trustee of an express trust, shall be entitled and empowered to institute any action or proceedings at law or in equity for the collection of the sums so due and unpaid, and may prosecute any such action or proceedings to judgment or final decree, and may enforce any such judgment or final decree against the Issuer or other obligor upon such Securities and collect in the manner provided by law out of the property of the Issuer or other obligor upon such Securities, wherever situated, the moneys adjudged or decreed to be payable.

 

In case there shall be pending proceedings relative to the Issuer or any other obligor upon the Securities under Title 11 of the United States Code or any other applicable Federal or state bankruptcy, insolvency or other similar law, or in case a receiver, assignee or trustee in bankruptcy or reorganization, liquidator, sequestrator or similar official shall have been appointed for or taken possession of the Issuer or its property or such other obligor or its property, or in case of any other comparable judicial proceedings relative to the Issuer or other obligor upon the Securities of any series, or to the creditors or property of the Issuer or such other obligor, the Trustee, irrespective of whether the principal of any Securities shall then be due and payable as therein expressed or by declaration or otherwise and irrespective of whether the Trustee shall have made any demand pursuant to the provisions of this Section, shall be entitled and empowered, by intervention in such proceedings or otherwise:

 

(i)                                    to file and prove a claim or claims for the whole amount of principal and interest (or, if the Securities of any series are Original Issue Discount Securities, such portion of the principal amount as may be specified in the terms of such series) owing and unpaid in respect of the Securities of any series, and to file such other papers or documents as may be necessary or advisable in order to have the claims of the Trustee (including any claim for reasonable compensation to the Trustee and each predecessor trustee, and their respective agents, attorneys and counsel, and for reimbursement of all expenses and liabilities incurred, and all advances made, by the Trustee and each predecessor trustee, except as a result of negligence or bad faith) and of the Securityholders allowed in any judicial proceedings relative to the Issuer or other obligor upon the Securities of any series, or to the creditors or property of the Issuer or such other obligor,

 

(ii)                                 unless prohibited by applicable law and regulations, to vote on behalf of the Holders of the Securities of any series in any election of a trustee or a standby trustee in arrangement, reorganization, liquidation or other bankruptcy or insolvency proceedings or person performing similar functions in comparable proceedings, and

 

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(iii)                              to collect and receive any moneys or other property payable or deliverable on any such claims, and to distribute all amounts received with respect to the claims of the Securityholders and of the Trustee on their behalf; and any trustee, receiver or liquidator, custodian or other similar official is hereby authorized by each of the Securityholders to make payments to the Trustee, and, in the event that the Trustee shall consent to the making of payments directly to the Securityholders, to pay to the Trustee such amounts as shall be sufficient to cover reasonable compensation to the Trustee, each predecessor trustee and their respective agents, attorneys and counsel, and all other expenses and liabilities incurred, and all advances made, by the Trustee and each predecessor trustee except as a result of negligence or bad faith and all other amounts due to the Trustee or any predecessor trustee pursuant to Section 6.06.

 

Nothing herein contained shall be deemed to authorize the Trustee to authorize or consent to or vote for or accept or adopt on behalf of any Securityholder any plan of reorganization, arrangement, adjustment or composition affecting the Securities of any series or the rights of any Holder thereof, or to authorize the Trustee to vote in respect of the claim of any Securityholder in any such proceeding except, as aforesaid, to vote for the election of a trustee in bankruptcy or similar person.

 

All rights of action and of asserting claims under this Indenture, or under any of the Securities of any series, may be enforced by the Trustee without the possession of any of the Securities of such series or the production thereof on any trial or other proceedings relative thereto, and any such action or proceedings instituted by the Trustee shall be brought in its own name as trustee of an express trust, and any recovery of judgment, subject to the payment of the expenses, disbursements and compensation of the Trustee, each predecessor trustee and their respective agents and attorneys, shall be for the ratable benefit of the Holders of the Securities in respect of which such action was taken.

 

In any proceedings brought by the Trustee (and also any proceedings involving the interpretation of any provision of this Indenture to which the Trustee shall be a party), the Trustee shall be held to represent all the Holders of the Securities in respect to which such action was taken, and it shall not be necessary to make any Holders of such Securities parties to any such proceedings.

 

Section 5.03                             Application of Proceeds.  Any moneys collected by the Trustee pursuant to this Article in respect of any series shall be applied in the following order at the date or dates fixed by the Trustee and, in case of the distribution of such moneys on account of principal or interest, upon presentation of the several Securities in respect of which monies have been collected and stamping (or otherwise noting) thereon the payment, or issuing Securities of such series in reduced principal amounts in exchange for the presented Securities of like series if only partially paid, or upon surrender thereof if fully paid:

 

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FIRST:  To the payment of all amounts due to the Trustee or any predecessor trustee pursuant to Section 6.06;

 

SECOND:  In case the principal of the Securities of such series in respect of which moneys have been collected shall not have become and be then due and payable, to the payment of interest on the Securities of such series in default in the order of the maturity of the installments of such interest, with interest (to the extent that such interest has been collected by the Trustee) upon the overdue installments of interest, to the extent permitted by applicable law, at the same rate as the rate of interest or Yield to Maturity (in the case of Original Issue Discount Securities) specified in such Securities, such payments to be made ratably to the Persons entitled thereto, without discrimination or preference;

 

THIRD:  In case the principal of the Securities of such series in respect of which moneys have been collected shall have become and shall be then due and payable, to the payment of the whole amount then owing and unpaid upon all the Securities of such series for principal and interest, with interest upon the overdue principal, and (to the extent that such interest has been collected by the Trustee) upon overdue installments of interest, to the extent permitted by applicable law, at the same rate as the rate of interest or Yield to Maturity (in the case of Original Issue Discount Securities) specified in the Securities of such series; and in case such moneys shall be insufficient to pay in full the whole amount so due and unpaid upon the Securities of such series, then to the payment of such principal and interest, without preference or priority of principal over interest, or of interest over principal, or of any installment of interest over any other installment of interest, or of any Security of such series over any other Security of such series, ratably to the aggregate of such principal and accrued and unpaid interest; and

 

FOURTH:  To the payment of the remainder, if any, to the Issuer or any other Person lawfully entitled thereto.

 

Section 5.04                             Suits for Enforcement.  In case an Event of Default has occurred, has not been waived and is continuing, the Trustee may in its discretion proceed to protect and enforce the rights vested in it by this Indenture by such appropriate judicial proceedings as the Trustee shall deem most effectual to protect and enforce any such rights, either at law or in equity or in bankruptcy or otherwise, whether for the specific enforcement of any covenant or agreement contained in this Indenture or in aid of the exercise of any power granted in this Indenture or to enforce any other legal or equitable right vested in the Trustee by this Indenture or by law.

 

Section 5.05                             Restoration of Rights on Abandonment of Proceedings.  In case the Trustee shall have proceeded to enforce any right under this Indenture and such proceedings shall have been discontinued or abandoned for any reason, or shall have been determined adversely to the Trustee, then and in every such case (subject to any determination in such proceeding) the Issuer and the Trustee shall be restored respectively to their former positions and rights hereunder, and all rights, remedies and powers of the Issuer, the Trustee and the Securityholders shall continue as though no such proceedings had been taken.

 

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Section 5.06                             Limitations on Suits by Securityholders.  No Holder of any Security of any series shall have any right by virtue, or by availing itself, of any provision of this Indenture to institute any action or proceeding at law or in equity or in bankruptcy or otherwise upon or under or with respect to this Indenture, or for the appointment of a trustee, receiver, liquidator, custodian or other similar official or for any other remedy hereunder, unless such Holder previously shall have given to the Trustee written notice of default and of the continuance thereof, as hereinbefore provided, and unless also the Holders of not less than 25% in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of such series then Outstanding shall have made written request upon the Trustee to institute such action or proceedings in its own name as trustee hereunder and shall have offered to the Trustee such reasonable indemnity as it may require against the costs, expenses and liabilities to be incurred therein or thereby and the Trustee for 60 days after its receipt of such notice, request and offer of indemnity shall have failed to institute any such action or proceeding and no direction inconsistent with such written request shall have been given to the Trustee pursuant to Section 5.09; it being understood and intended, and being expressly covenanted by the Holder of every Security of a particular series with every other Holder of Securities of such series and the Trustee, that no one or more Holders of Securities of any series shall have any right in any manner whatever by virtue or by availing of any provision of this Indenture to affect, disturb or prejudice the rights of any other such Holder of Securities of such series, or to obtain or seek to obtain priority over or preference to any other such Holder of such series or to enforce any right under this Indenture, except in the manner herein provided and for the equal, ratable and common benefit of all Holders of Securities of the applicable series.  For the protection and enforcement of the provisions of this Section, each and every Securityholder and the Trustee shall be entitled to such relief as can be given either at law or in equity.

 

Section 5.07                             Unconditional Right of Securityholders to Institute Certain Suits.  Notwithstanding any other provision in this Indenture and any provision of any Security, the right of any Holder of any Security to receive payment of the principal of and interest on such Security on or after the respective due dates expressed in such Security in accordance with the terms hereof and thereof, or to institute suit for the enforcement of any such payment on or after such respective dates, shall not be impaired or affected without the consent of such Holder; it being understood and intended, and being expressly covenanted by the Holder of every Security of a particular series with every other Holder of Securities of such Series and the Trustee, that no one or more Holders of Securities of any series shall have any right in any manner whatever by virtue or by availing of any provision of this Indenture to affect, disturb or prejudice the rights of any other such Holder of Securities of such series, or to obtain or seek to obtain priority over or preference to any other such Holder of Securities of such series or to enforce any right under this Indenture, except in the manner herein provided and for the equal, ratable and common benefit of all Holders of Securities of the applicable series.  For the protection and enforcement of the provisions of this Section, each and every Securityholder and the Trustee shall be entitled to such relief as can be given either at law or in equity.

 

Section 5.08                             Powers and Remedies Cumulative; Delay or Omission Not Waiver of Default.  Except as provided in Section 5.06, no right or remedy herein conferred upon or reserved to the Trustee or to the Holders of Securities is intended to be exclusive of any other right or remedy, and every right and remedy shall, to the extent permitted by law, be cumulative and in addition to every other right and remedy given hereunder or now or hereafter existing at

 

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law or in equity or otherwise.  The assertion or employment of any right or remedy hereunder, or otherwise, shall not prevent the concurrent assertion or employment of any other appropriate right or remedy.

 

No delay or omission of the Trustee or of any Holder of Securities to exercise any right or power accruing upon any Event of Default occurring and continuing as aforesaid shall impair any such right or power or shall be construed to be a waiver of any such Event of Default or an acquiescence therein; and, subject to Section 5.06, every power and remedy given by this Indenture or by law to the Trustee or to the Holders of Securities may be exercised from time to time, and as often as shall be deemed expedient, by the Trustee or by the Holders of Securities.

 

Section 5.09                             Control by Holders of Securities.  The Holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of each series affected (with each series voting as a separate class) at the time Outstanding shall have the right to direct the time, method and place of conducting any proceeding for any remedy available to the Trustee, or exercising any trust or power conferred on the Trustee with respect to the Securities of such series by this Indenture; provided, that such direction shall not be otherwise than in accordance with law and the provisions of this Indenture and provided, further, that (subject to the provisions of Section 6.01) the Trustee shall have the right to decline to follow any such direction if the Trustee, being advised by counsel, shall determine that the action or proceeding so directed may not lawfully be taken or if the Trustee in good faith by its board of directors, the executive committee, or a trust committee of directors or Responsible Officers of the Trustee shall determine that the action or proceedings so directed would involve the Trustee in personal liability or if the Trustee in good faith shall so determine that the actions or forbearances specified in or pursuant to such direction would be unduly prejudicial to the interests of Holders of the Securities of all series so affected not joining in the giving of said direction, it being understood that (subject to Section 6.01) the Trustee shall have no duty to ascertain whether or not such actions or forbearances are unduly prejudicial to such Holders.

 

Nothing in this Indenture shall impair the right of the Trustee in its discretion to take any action deemed proper by the Trustee and which is not inconsistent with such direction or directions by Securityholders.

 

Section 5.10                             Waiver of Past Defaults.  The Holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of any series at the time Outstanding, by notice to the Trustee, may on behalf of the Holders of all the Securities of such series waive any existing default in the performance of any of the covenants contained herein or established pursuant to Section 2.03 with respect to such series and its consequences, except an uncured default in the payment of the principal of, or interest on, any of the Securities of that series as and when the same shall become due by the terms of such Securities; and may rescind an acceleration and its consequences, including any related payment default that resulted from such acceleration.  In the case of any such waiver, the Issuer, the Trustee and the Holders of the Securities of such series shall be restored to their former positions and rights hereunder, respectively, such default shall cease to exist and be deemed to have been cured and not to have occurred, and any Event of Default arising therefrom shall be deemed to have been cured, and not to have occurred for every purpose of this Indenture; but no such waiver shall extend to any subsequent or other default or Event of Default or impair any right consequent thereon.

 

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Section 5.11                             Trustee to Give Notice of Default.  The Trustee shall, within 90 days after the occurrence of a default with respect to the Securities of any series, give notice of all defaults with respect to that series known to the Trustee to all Holders of Securities of such series in the manner and to the extent provided in Sections 4.03 and 11.04, unless in each case such defaults shall have been cured before the giving of such notice (the term “defaults” for the purpose of this Section being hereby defined to mean any event or condition which is, or with notice or lapse of time or both would become, an Event of Default); provided, that, except in the case of default in the payment of the principal of or interest on any of the Securities of such series, or in the payment of any sinking fund installment on such series, the Trustee shall be protected in withholding such notice if and so long as the board of directors, the executive committee, or a trust committee of directors or trustees and/or Responsible Officers of the Trustee in good faith determines that the withholding of such notice is in the interests of the Securityholders of such series.

 

Section 5.12                             Right of Court to Require Filing of Undertaking to Pay Costs.  All parties to this Indenture agree, and each Holder of any Security by his or her acceptance thereof shall be deemed to have agreed, that any court may in its discretion require, in any suit for the enforcement of any right or remedy under this Indenture or in any suit against the Trustee for any action taken, suffered or omitted by it as Trustee, the filing by any party litigant in such suit of an undertaking to pay the costs of such suit, and that such court may in its discretion assess reasonable costs, including reasonable attorneys’ fees, against any party litigant in such suit, having due regard to the merits and good faith of the claims or defenses made by such party litigant; but the provisions of this Section shall not apply to any suit instituted by the Trustee, to any suit instituted by any Securityholder or group of Securityholders of any series holding in the aggregate more than 10% in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of such series, or to any suit instituted by any Securityholder for the enforcement of the payment of the principal of or interest on any Security of such series, on or after the respective due dates expressed in such Security or established pursuant to this Indenture.

 

ARTICLE 6
CONCERNING THE TRUSTEE

 

Section 6.01                             Duties and Responsibilities of the Trustee; During Default; Prior to Default.  With respect to the Holders of any series of Securities issued hereunder, the Trustee, prior to the occurrence of an Event of Default with respect to the Securities of a particular series and after the curing or waiving of all Events of Default which may have occurred with respect to such series, undertakes to perform such duties and only such duties as are specifically set forth in this Indenture.  In case an Event of Default with respect to the Securities of a series has occurred (and has not been cured or waived), the Trustee shall exercise such of the rights and powers vested in it by this Indenture, and use the same degree of care and skill in their exercise, as a prudent person would exercise or use under the circumstances in the conduct of his or her own affairs.

 

No provision of this Indenture shall be construed to relieve the Trustee from liability for its own negligent action, its own negligent failure to act or its own willful misconduct.

 

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Section 6.02                             Certain Rights of the Trustee.  In furtherance of and subject to the Trust Indenture Act of 1939 and subject to Section 6.01:

 

(a)                                 in the absence of bad faith on the part of the Trustee, the Trustee may conclusively rely, as to the truth of the statements and the correctness of the opinions expressed therein, upon any statements, certificates or opinions furnished to the Trustee and conforming to the requirements of this Indenture; but, in the case of any such statements, certificates or opinions which by any provision hereof are specifically required to be furnished to the Trustee, the Trustee shall be under a duty to examine the same to determine whether or not they conform to the requirements of this Indenture;

 

(b)                                 the Trustee shall not be liable for any error of judgment made in good faith by a Responsible Officer or Responsible Officers of the Trustee, unless it shall be proved that the Trustee was negligent in ascertaining the pertinent facts;

 

(c)                                  the Trustee shall not be liable with respect to any action taken or omitted to be taken by it in good faith in accordance with the direction of the Holders pursuant to Section 5.09 relating to the time, method and place of conducting any proceeding for any remedy available to the Trustee, or exercising any trust or power conferred upon the Trustee, under this Indenture;

 

(d)                                 none of the provisions contained in this Indenture shall require the Trustee to expend or risk its own funds or otherwise incur personal financial liability in the performance of any of its duties or in the exercise of any of its rights or powers if there shall be reasonable ground for believing that the repayment of such funds or adequate indemnity against such liability is not reasonably assured to it;

 

(e)                                  the Trustee may rely and shall be protected in acting or refraining from acting upon any resolution, Officer’s Certificate or any other certificate, statement, instrument, opinion, report, notice, request, consent, order, bond, debenture, note, security or other paper or document believed by it to be genuine and to have been signed or presented by the proper party or parties;

 

(f)                                   any request, direction, order or demand of the Issuer mentioned herein shall be sufficiently evidenced by an Officer’s Certificate (unless other evidence in respect thereof be herein specifically prescribed); and any resolution of the Board of Directors may be evidenced to the Trustee by a copy thereof certified by the secretary or an assistant secretary of the Issuer;

 

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(g)                                  the Trustee may consult with counsel and any advice or Opinion of Counsel shall be full and complete authorization and protection in respect of any action taken, suffered or omitted to be taken by it hereunder in good faith and in accordance with such advice or Opinion of Counsel;

 

(h)                                 the Trustee shall be under no obligation to exercise any of the trusts or powers vested in it by this Indenture at the request, order or direction of any of the Securityholders pursuant to the provisions of this Indenture, unless such Securityholders shall have offered to the Trustee reasonable security or indemnity against the costs, expenses and liabilities that might be incurred therein or thereby;

 

(i)                                     the Trustee shall not be liable for any action taken or omitted by it in good faith and believed by it to be authorized or within the discretion, rights or powers conferred upon it by this Indenture;

 

(j)                                    prior to the occurrence of an Event of Default hereunder and after the curing or waiving of all Events of Default, the Trustee shall not be bound to make any investigation into the facts or matters stated in any resolution, certificate, statement, instrument, opinion, report, notice, request, consent, order, approval, appraisal, bond, debenture, note, security, or other paper or document unless requested in writing so to do by the Holders of not less than a majority in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of all series affected then Outstanding; provided, that, if the payment within a reasonable time to the Trustee of the costs, expenses or liabilities likely to be incurred by it in the making of such investigation is, in the opinion of the Trustee, not reasonably assured to the Trustee by the security afforded to it by the terms of this Indenture, the Trustee may require reasonable indemnity against such expenses or liabilities as a condition to proceeding; the reasonable expenses of every such investigation shall be paid by the Issuer or, if paid by the Trustee or any predecessor trustee, shall be repaid by the Issuer upon demand; and

 

(k)                                 the Trustee may execute any of the trusts or powers hereunder or perform any duties hereunder either directly or by or through agents or attorneys not regularly in its employ and the Trustee shall not be responsible for any misconduct or negligence on the part of any such agent or attorney appointed with due care by it hereunder.

 

Section 6.03                             Trustee Not Responsible for Recitals, Disposition of Securities or Application of Proceeds Thereof.  The recitals contained herein and in the Securities, except the Trustee’s certificates of authentication, shall be taken as the statements of the Issuer, and the Trustee assumes no responsibility for the correctness of the same.  The Trustee makes no representation as to the validity or sufficiency of this Indenture or of the Securities.  The Trustee shall not be accountable for the use or application by the Issuer of any of the Securities or of the proceeds thereof.

 

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Section 6.04                             Trustee and Agents May Hold Securities; Collections, Etc.  The Trustee or any agent of the Issuer or the Trustee, in its individual or any other capacity, may become the owner or pledgee of Securities with the same rights it would have if it were not the Trustee or such agent and may otherwise deal with the Issuer and receive, collect, hold and retain collections from the Issuer with the same rights it would have if it were not the Trustee or such agent.

 

Section 6.05                             Moneys Held by Trustee.  Subject to the provisions of Section 10.04 hereof, all moneys received by the Trustee shall, until used or applied as herein provided, be held in trust for the purposes for which they were received, but need not be segregated from other funds except to the extent required by mandatory provisions of law.  Neither the Trustee nor any agent of the Issuer or the Trustee shall be under any liability for interest on any moneys received by it hereunder.

 

Section 6.06                             Compensation and Indemnification of Trustee and Its Prior Claim.  The Issuer covenants and agrees to pay to the Trustee from time to time, and the Trustee shall be entitled to, such reasonable compensation (which shall not be limited by any provision of law in regard to the compensation of a trustee of an express trust) as the Issuer and the Trustee may from time to time agree in writing and, except as otherwise expressly provided herein, the Issuer covenants and agrees to pay or reimburse the Trustee and each predecessor trustee upon its request for all reasonable expenses, disbursements and advances incurred or made by or on behalf of it in accordance with any of the provisions of this Indenture (including the reasonable compensation and the expenses and disbursements of its counsel and of all agents and other persons not regularly in its employ) except any such expense, disbursement or advance as may arise from its negligence or bad faith.  The Issuer also covenants to indemnify the Trustee and each predecessor trustee for, and to hold it harmless against, any loss, liability or expense incurred without negligence or bad faith on its part, arising out of or in connection with the acceptance or administration of this Indenture or the trusts hereunder and its duties hereunder, including the costs and expenses of defending itself against or investigating any claim of liability in the premises.  The obligations of the Issuer under this Section to compensate and indemnify the Trustee and each predecessor trustee and to pay or reimburse the Trustee and each predecessor trustee for expenses, disbursements and advances shall constitute additional indebtedness hereunder and shall survive the satisfaction and discharge of this Indenture.  Such additional indebtedness shall be a senior claim to that of the Securities upon all property and funds held or collected by the Trustee as such, except funds held in trust for the benefit of the Holders of particular Securities, and the Securities are hereby subordinated to such senior claim.

 

Section 6.07                             Right of Trustee to Rely on Officer’s Certificate, Etc.  Subject to Sections 6.01 and 6.02, whenever in the administration of the trusts of this Indenture the Trustee shall deem it necessary or desirable that a matter be proved or established prior to taking or suffering or omitting any action hereunder, such matter (unless other evidence in respect thereof be herein specifically prescribed) may, in the absence of negligence or bad faith on the part of the Trustee, be deemed to be conclusively proved and established by an Officer’s Certificate delivered to the Trustee, and such certificate, in the absence of negligence or bad faith on the part of the Trustee, shall be full warrant to the Trustee for any action taken, suffered or omitted by it under the provisions of this Indenture upon the faith thereof.

 

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Section 6.08                             Disqualification; Conflicting Interests.  If the Trustee has or shall acquire any “conflicting interest” within the meaning of Section 310(b) of the Trust Indenture Act, the Trustee and the Issuer shall in all respects comply with the provisions of Section 310(b) of the Trust Indenture Act.

 

Section 6.09                             Persons Eligible for Appointment as Trustee.  The Trustee for each series of Securities hereunder shall at all times be a corporation having a combined capital and surplus of at least $50,000,000 and shall be eligible in accordance with the provisions of Section 310(a) of the Trust Indenture Act of 1939.  If such corporation publishes reports of condition at least annually, pursuant to law or to the requirements of a Federal, State or District of Columbia supervising or examining authority, then, for the purposes of this Section, the combined capital and surplus of such corporation shall be deemed to be its combined capital and surplus as set forth in its most recent report of condition so published.

 

Section 6.10                             Resignation and Removal; Appointment of Successor Trustee.  (a)  The Trustee, or any trustee or trustees hereafter appointed, may at any time resign with respect to one or more or all series of Securities by giving written notice of resignation to the Issuer and by delivering notice of such resignation to the Holders of then Outstanding Securities of each series affected at their addresses as they shall appear on the Security register.  Upon receiving such notice of resignation, the Issuer shall promptly appoint a successor trustee or trustees with respect to the applicable series by written instrument in duplicate, executed by authority of the Board of Directors, one copy of which instrument shall be delivered to the resigning Trustee and one copy to the successor trustee or trustees.  If no successor trustee shall have been so appointed with respect to any series and have accepted appointment within 30 days after the delivery of such notice of resignation, the resigning trustee may petition any court of competent jurisdiction for the appointment of a successor trustee, or any Securityholder who has been a bona fide Holder of a Security or Securities of the applicable series for at least six months may, on behalf of himself or herself and all others similarly situated, petition any such court for the appointment of a successor trustee.  Such court may thereupon, after such notice, if any, as it may deem proper and prescribe, appoint a successor trustee.

 

(b)                                 In case at any time any of the following shall occur:

 

(i)                                     the Trustee shall fail to comply with the provisions of Section 310(b) of the Trust Indenture Act of 1939 with respect to any series of Securities after written request therefor by the Issuer or by any Securityholder who has been a bona fide Holder of a Security or Securities of such series for at least six months; or

 

(ii)                                  the Trustee shall cease to be eligible in accordance with the provisions of Section 310(a) of the Trust Indenture Act of 1939 and shall fail to resign after written request therefor by the Issuer or by any Securityholder; or

 

(iii)                               the Trustee shall become incapable of acting with respect to any series of Securities, or shall be adjudged bankrupt or insolvent, or a receiver or liquidator of the Trustee or of its property shall be

 

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appointed, or any public officer shall take charge or control of the Trustee or of its property or affairs for the purpose of rehabilitation, conservation or liquidation;

 

then, in any such case, (A) the Issuer may remove the Trustee with respect to the applicable series of Securities and appoint a successor trustee for such series by written instrument, in duplicate, executed by order of the Board of Directors, one copy of which instrument shall be delivered to the Trustee so removed and one copy to the successor trustee, or, (B) subject to Section 315(e) of the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, any Securityholder who has been a bona fide Holder of a Security or Securities of such series for at least six months may on behalf of itself and all others similarly situated, petition any court of competent jurisdiction for the removal of the Trustee and the appointment of a successor trustee with respect to such series. Such court may thereupon, after such notice, if any, as it may deem proper and prescribe, remove the Trustee and appoint a successor trustee.

 

(c)                                  The Holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of each series at the time Outstanding may at any time remove the Trustee with respect to Securities of such series and, with the consent of the Issuer, appoint a successor trustee with respect to the Securities of such series by delivering to the Trustee so removed, to the successor trustee so appointed and to the Issuer the evidence provided for in Section 7.01 of the action in that regard taken by the Securityholders.

 

(d)                                 Any resignation or removal of the Trustee with respect to any series and any appointment of a successor trustee with respect to such series pursuant to any of the provisions of this Section 6.10 shall become effective upon acceptance of appointment by the successor trustee as provided in Section 6.11.

 

Section 6.11                             Acceptance of Appointment by Successor Trustee.  Any successor trustee appointed as provided in Section 6.10 shall execute and deliver to the Issuer and to its predecessor trustee an instrument accepting such appointment hereunder, and thereupon the resignation or removal of the predecessor trustee with respect to all or any applicable series shall become effective and such successor trustee, without any further act, deed or conveyance, shall become vested with all rights, powers, duties and obligations with respect to such series of its predecessor hereunder, with like effect as if originally named as trustee for such series hereunder; but, nevertheless, on the written request of the Issuer or of the successor trustee, upon payment of its charges then unpaid, the trustee ceasing to act shall, subject to Section 10.04, pay over to the successor trustee all moneys at the time held by it hereunder and shall execute and deliver an instrument transferring to such successor trustee all such rights, powers, duties and obligations.  Upon request of any such successor trustee, the Issuer shall execute any and all instruments in writing for more fully and certainly vesting in and confirming to such successor trustee all such rights and powers.  Any trustee ceasing to act shall, nevertheless, retain a prior claim upon all property or funds held or collected by such trustee to secure any amounts then due it pursuant to the provisions of Section 6.06.

 

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If a successor trustee is appointed with respect to the Securities of one or more (but not all) series, the Issuer, the predecessor trustee and each successor trustee with respect to the Securities of any applicable series shall execute and deliver an indenture supplemental hereto which shall contain such provisions as shall be deemed necessary or desirable to confirm that all the rights, powers, trusts and duties of the predecessor trustee with respect to the Securities of any series as to which the predecessor trustee is not retiring shall continue to be vested in the predecessor trustee, and shall add to or change any of the provisions of this Indenture as shall be necessary to provide for or facilitate the administration of the trusts hereunder by more than one trustee, it being understood that nothing herein or in such supplemental indenture shall constitute such trustees co-trustees of the same trust and that each such trustee shall be trustee of a trust or trusts under separate indentures.

 

No successor trustee with respect to any series of Securities shall accept appointment as provided in this Section 6.11 unless at the time of such acceptance such successor trustee shall be qualified under the provisions of Section 310(b) of the Trust Indenture Act of 1939 and eligible under the provisions of Section 310(a) of the Trust Indenture Act of 1939.

 

Upon acceptance of appointment by any successor trustee as provided in this Section 6.11, the Issuer shall deliver notice thereof to the Holders of Securities of each series affected, by delivering such notice to such Holders at their addresses as they shall appear on the Security register.  If the acceptance of appointment is substantially contemporaneous with the resignation, then the notice called for by the preceding sentence may be combined with the notice called for by Section 6.10.  If the Issuer fails to deliver such notice within ten days after acceptance of appointment by the successor trustee, the successor trustee shall cause such notice to be given at the expense of the Issuer.

 

Section 6.12                             Merger, Conversion, Consolidation or Succession to Business of Trustee.  Any corporation into which the Trustee may be merged or converted or with which it may be consolidated, or any corporation resulting from any merger, conversion or consolidation to which the Trustee shall be a party, or any corporation succeeding to the corporate trust business of the Trustee, shall be the successor of the Trustee hereunder; provided, that such corporation shall be qualified under the provisions of Section 310(b) of the Trust Indenture Act of 1939 and eligible under the provisions of Section 310(a) of the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, without the execution or filing of any paper or any further act on the part of any of the parties hereto, anything herein to the contrary notwithstanding.

 

In case, at the time such successor to the Trustee shall succeed to the trusts created by this Indenture, any of the Securities of any series shall have been authenticated but not delivered, any such successor to the Trustee may adopt the certificate of authentication of any predecessor trustee and deliver such Securities so authenticated; and, in case at that time any of the Securities of any series shall not have been authenticated, any successor to the Trustee may authenticate such Securities either in the name of any predecessor hereunder or in the name of the successor trustee; and in all such cases such certificate shall have the full force which it is anywhere in the Securities of such series or in this Indenture provided that the certificate of the Trustee shall have; provided, that the right to adopt the certificate of authentication of any predecessor trustee or to authenticate Securities of any series in the name of any predecessor trustee shall apply only to its successor or successors by merger, conversion or consolidation.

 

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Section 6.13                             Preferential Collection of Claims Against the Issuer.  The Trustee shall comply with Section 311(a) of the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, excluding any creditor relationship described in Section 311(b) of the Trust Indenture Act of 1939.  A Trustee who has resigned or been removed shall be subject to Section 311(a) of the Trust Indenture Act of 1939 to the extent included therein.

 

ARTICLE 7
CONCERNING THE SECURITYHOLDERS

 

Section 7.01                             Evidence of Action Taken by Securityholders.  Any request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent, waiver or other action provided by this Indenture to be given or taken by a specified percentage in principal amount of the Securityholders of any or all series may be embodied in and evidenced by one or more instruments of substantially similar tenor signed by such specified percentage of Securityholders in person or by agent duly appointed in writing; and, except as herein otherwise expressly provided, such action shall become effective when such instrument or instruments are delivered to the Trustee.  Proof of execution of any instrument or of a writing appointing any such agent shall be sufficient for any purpose of this Indenture and (subject to Sections 6.01 and 6.02) conclusive in favor of the Trustee and the Issuer, if made in the manner provided in this Article.

 

Section 7.02                             Proof of Execution of Instruments and of Holding of Securities.  Subject to Sections 6.01 and 6.02, the execution of any instrument by a Holder or his agent or proxy may be proved in accordance with such reasonable rules and regulations as may be prescribed by the Trustee or in such manner as shall be satisfactory to the Trustee.  The holding of Securities shall be proved by the Security register or by a certificate of the registrar thereof.  The Issuer may set a record date for purposes of determining the identity of Holders of any series entitled to vote or consent to any action referred to in Section 7.01, which record date may be set at any time or from time to time by notice to the Trustee, for any date or dates (in the case of any adjournment or reconsideration) not more than 60 days nor less than five days prior to the proposed date of such vote or consent, and thereafter, notwithstanding any other provisions hereof, only Holders of such series of record on such record date shall be entitled to so vote or give such consent or revoke such vote or consent.  Notice of such record date may be given before or after any request for any action referred to in Section 7.01 is made by the Issuer.

 

Section 7.03                             Holders to Be Treated as Owners.  The Issuer, the Trustee and any agent of the Issuer or of the Trustee may deem and treat the Person in whose name any Security shall be registered upon the Security register for such series as the absolute owner of such Security (whether or not such Security shall be overdue and notwithstanding any notation of ownership or other writing thereon) for the purpose of receiving payment of or on account of the principal of, and, subject to the provisions of this Indenture, interest on, such Security and for all other purposes; and neither the Issuer nor the Trustee nor any agent of the Issuer or the Trustee shall be affected by any notice to the contrary.  All such payments so made to any such Person, or upon his or her order, shall be valid, and, to the extent of the sum or sums so paid, effectual to satisfy and discharge the liability for moneys payable.

 

Section 7.04                             Securities Owned by Issuer Deemed Not Outstanding.  In determining whether the Holders of the requisite aggregate principal amount of Outstanding Securities of any

 

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or all series have concurred in any direction, consent or waiver under this Indenture, Securities that are owned by the Issuer or any other obligor on the Securities with respect to which such determination is being made or by any Person directly or indirectly controlling or controlled by or under direct or indirect common control with the Issuer or any other obligor on the Securities with respect to which such determination is being made shall be disregarded and deemed not to be Outstanding for the purpose of any such determination, except that, for the purpose of determining whether the Trustee shall be protected in relying on any such direction, consent or waiver, only Securities which the Trustee knows are so owned shall be so disregarded.  Securities so owned which have been pledged in good faith may be regarded as Outstanding if the pledgee establishes to the satisfaction of the Trustee the pledgee’s right so to act with respect to such Securities and that the pledgee is not the Issuer or any other obligor upon the Securities or any Person directly or indirectly controlling or controlled by or under direct or indirect common control with the Issuer or any other obligor on the Securities.  In case of a dispute as to such right, the advice of counsel shall be full protection in respect of any decision made by the Trustee in accordance with such advice.

 

Section 7.05                             Right of Revocation of Action Taken.  At any time prior to (but not after) the evidencing to the Trustee, as provided in Section 7.01, of the taking of any action by the Holders of the percentage in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of any or all series, as the case may be, specified in this Indenture in connection with such action, any Holder of a Security the serial number of which is shown by the evidence to be included among the serial numbers of the Securities the Holders of which have consented to such action may, by filing written notice at the Corporate Trust Office and upon proof of holding as provided in this Article, revoke such action so far as concerns such Security.  Except as aforesaid, any such action taken by the Holder of any Security shall be conclusive and binding upon such Holder and upon all future Holders and owners of such Security and of any Securities issued in exchange or substitution therefor or on registration of transfer thereof, irrespective of whether or not any notation in regard thereto is made upon any such Security.  Any action taken by the Holders of the percentage in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of any or all series, as the case may be, specified in this Indenture in connection with such action shall be conclusively binding upon the Issuer, the Trustee and the Holders of all the Securities affected by such action.

 

ARTICLE 8
SUPPLEMENTAL INDENTURES

 

Section 8.01                             Supplemental Indentures Without Consent of Securityholders.  The Issuer, when authorized by a resolution of its Board of Directors, and the Trustee may from time to time and at any time, without the consent of any of the Securityholders, enter into an indenture or indentures supplemental hereto in form satisfactory to the Trustee for one or more of the following purposes:

 

(a)                                 to convey, transfer, assign, mortgage or pledge to the Trustee as security for the Securities of one or more series any property or assets;

 

(b)                                 to evidence the succession of another Person to the Issuer, or successive successions, and the assumption by such successor of the covenants,

 

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agreements and obligations of the Issuer pursuant to, or to otherwise comply with, Article 9;

 

(c)                                  to comply with the requirements of the Commission in order to effect or maintain the qualification of this Indenture under the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, as amended;

 

(d)                                 to add to the covenants of the Issuer such further covenants, restrictions, conditions or provisions as its Board of Directors and the Trustee shall consider to be for the protection of the Holders of Securities, and to make the occurrence, or the occurrence and continuance, of a default in any such additional covenants, restrictions, conditions or provisions an Event of Default permitting the enforcement of all or any of the several remedies provided in this Indenture as herein set forth; provided, that in respect of any such additional covenant, restriction, condition or provision such supplemental indenture may provide for a particular period of grace after default (which period may be shorter or longer than that allowed in the case of other defaults) or may provide for an immediate enforcement upon such an Event of Default or may limit the remedies available to the Trustee upon such an Event of Default or may limit the right of the Holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of such series to waive such an Event of Default;

 

(e)                                  to cure any ambiguity, defect or inconsistency, or to conform this Indenture or any supplemental indenture to the description of the Securities set forth in any prospectus, prospectus supplement or offering memorandum related to such series of Securities;

 

(f)                                   to provide for or add guarantors for the Securities of one or more series;

 

(g)                                  to establish the form or terms of Securities of any series as permitted by Sections 2.01 and 2.03;

 

(h)                                 to evidence and provide for the acceptance of appointment hereunder by a successor trustee with respect to the Securities of one or more series and to add to or change any of the provisions of this Indenture as shall be necessary to provide for or facilitate the administration of the trusts hereunder by more than one trustee, pursuant to the requirements of Section 6.11;

 

(i)                                     to add to, change or eliminate any of the provisions of this Indenture in respect of one or more series of Securities; provided that any such addition, change or elimination shall (A) not (i) apply to any Security of any series created prior to the execution of such supplemental indenture and entitled to the benefit of such provision nor (ii) modify the rights of the Holder of any such Security with respect to such provision or (B) shall

 

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become effective only when there is no Security described in clause (A)(i) Outstanding;

 

(j)                                    to make any change to the Securities of any series so long as no Securities of such series are Outstanding; and

 

(k)                                 to make any other change that does not adversely affect the interests of the Holders of the Securities in any material respect.

 

The Trustee shall join with the Issuer in the execution of any such supplemental indenture, to make any further appropriate agreements and stipulations which may be therein contained and to accept the conveyance, transfer, assignment, mortgage or pledge of any property thereunder, but the Trustee shall not be obligated to enter into any such supplemental indenture which affects the Trustee’s own rights, duties or immunities under this Indenture or otherwise.

 

Any supplemental indenture authorized by the provisions of this Section may be executed without the consent of the Holders of any of the Securities at the time Outstanding, notwithstanding any of the provisions of Section 8.02.

 

Section 8.02                             Supplemental Indentures With Consent of Securityholders.  With the consent (evidenced as provided in Article 7) of the Holders of not less than a majority in aggregate principal amount of the Securities at the time Outstanding of one or more series affected by such supplemental indenture (voting as separate series), the Issuer, when authorized by a resolution of the Board of Directors, and the Trustee may, from time to time and at any time, enter into an indenture or indentures supplemental hereto for the purpose of adding any provisions to or changing in any manner or eliminating any of the provisions of this Indenture or of any supplemental indenture or of modifying in any manner the rights of the Holders of the Securities of each such consenting series; provided, that no such supplemental indenture shall, without the consent of the Holder of each Security so affected, (a) extend the final maturity of any Security, or reduce the principal amount thereof, or reduce the rate or extend the time of payment of interest thereon, or reduce any amount payable on redemption thereof, or make the principal thereof (including any amount in respect of original issue discount) or interest thereon payable in any currency other than that provided in the Securities or in accordance with the terms thereof, or reduce the amount of the principal of an Original Issue Discount Security that would be due and payable upon an acceleration of the maturity thereof pursuant to Section 5.01 or the amount thereof provable in bankruptcy pursuant to Section 5.02, or (b) waive a continuing default in the payment of principal of any Security or interest thereon, other than any such default in payment that resulted solely from such acceleration, or change a provision related to the waiver of past defaults or impair the right of any Securityholder to institute suit for the enforcement of any such payment on or after the Stated Maturity or the date of redemption or conversion of any Security or, if the Securities provide therefor, any right of repayment at the option of the Securityholder, or (c) modify any of the provisions of this section except to increase any required percentage or to provide that certain other provisions cannot be modified or waived without the consent of the Holder of each Security so affected, or (d) make any change that adversely affects the right to convert or exchange any Security into or for Common Stock or other securities, cash or other property in accordance with the terms of such Security or (e)

 

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reduce the aforesaid percentage of Securities of any series, the consent of the Holders of which is required for any such supplemental indenture or the consent of Holders of which is required for any modification, amendment or waiver of compliance with certain provisions of this Indenture or certain defaults hereunder and their consequences provided for in this Indenture.

 

A supplemental indenture which changes or eliminates any covenant, Event of Default or other provision of this Indenture (1) that has been expressly included solely for the benefit of one or more particular series of Securities, if any, or (2) which modifies the rights of Holders of Securities of one or more series with respect to any covenant, Event of Default or provision, shall be deemed not to affect the rights under this Indenture of the Holders of Securities of any other series with respect to which such covenant, Event of Default or other provision has not been included or so modified.

 

Upon the request of the Issuer, accompanied by a Board Resolution authorizing the execution of any such supplemental indenture, and upon the filing with the Trustee of evidence of the consent of Securityholders as aforesaid and other documents, if any, required by Section 7.01, the Trustee shall join with the Issuer in the execution of such supplemental indenture unless such supplemental indenture affects the Trustee’s own rights, duties or immunities under this Indenture or otherwise, in which case the Trustee may in its discretion, but shall not be obligated to, enter into such supplemental indenture.

 

It shall not be necessary for the consent of the Securityholders under this Section to approve the particular form of any proposed supplemental indenture, but it shall be sufficient if such consent shall approve the substance thereof.

 

Promptly after the execution by the Issuer and the Trustee of any supplemental indenture pursuant to the provisions of this Section, the Trustee shall give a notice thereof to the Holders of then Outstanding Securities of each series affected thereby, by delivering a notice thereof, and in each case such notice shall set forth in general terms the substance of such supplemental indenture.  Any failure of the Trustee to deliver such notice, or any defect therein, shall not, however, in any way impair or affect the validity of any such supplemental indenture.

 

Section 8.03                             Effect of Supplemental Indenture.  Upon the execution of any supplemental indenture pursuant to the provisions hereof, this Indenture shall be and be deemed to be modified and amended in accordance therewith and the respective rights, limitations of rights, obligations, duties and immunities under this Indenture of the Trustee, the Issuer and the Holders of Securities of each series affected thereby shall thereafter be determined, exercised and enforced hereunder subject in all respects to such modifications and amendments, and all the terms and conditions of any such supplemental indenture shall be and be deemed to be part of the terms and conditions of this Indenture for any and all purposes.

 

Section 8.04                             Documents to Be Given to Trustee.  The Trustee, subject to the provisions of Sections 6.01 and 6.02, may receive an Officer’s Certificate and an Opinion of Counsel as conclusive evidence that any supplemental indenture executed pursuant to this Article 8 complies with the applicable provisions of this Indenture.

 

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Section 8.05                             Notation on Securities in Respect of Supplemental Indentures.  Securities of any series authenticated and delivered after the execution of any supplemental indenture pursuant to the provisions of this Article may bear a notation in form approved by the Trustee for such series as to any matter provided for by such supplemental indenture or as to any action taken by Securityholders.  If the Issuer or the Trustee shall so determine, new Securities of any series so modified as to conform, in the opinion of the Trustee and the Board of Directors, to any modification of this Indenture contained in any such supplemental indenture may be prepared by the Issuer, authenticated by the Trustee and delivered in exchange for the Securities of such series then Outstanding.

 

ARTICLE 9
CONSOLIDATION, MERGER, SALE OR CONVEYANCE

 

Section 9.01                             Issuer May Consolidate, Etc., on Certain Terms.  The Issuer shall not consolidate with or merge into any other Person (in a transaction in which the Issuer is not the surviving corporation) or convey, transfer or lease its properties and assets substantially as an entirety to any Person, unless (a) the Person formed by such consolidation or into which the Issuer is merged or the Person which acquires by conveyance or transfer, or which leases, the properties and assets of the Issuer substantially as an entirety (i) shall be a corporation, limited liability company, partnership or trust, (ii) shall be organized and validly existing under the laws of the United States of America, any State thereof or the District of Columbia and (iii) shall expressly assume, by an indenture supplemental hereto, executed and delivered to the Trustee, in form satisfactory to the Trustee, the due and punctual payment of the principal, interest on and any Additional Amounts with respect to all the Securities and the performance or observance of every covenant of this Indenture on the part of the Issuer to be performed, by supplemental indenture satisfactory in form to the Trustee, executed and delivered to the Trustee, by the Person formed by such consolidation or into which the Issuer shall have been merged or by the Person which shall have acquired the Issuer’s assets; (b) immediately after giving effect to such transaction, no Event of Default, and no event which, after notice or lapse of time or both, would become an Event of Default, shall have happened and be continuing; and (c) the Issuer has delivered to the Trustee an Officer’s Certificate and an Opinion of Counsel, each stating that such consolidation, merger, conveyance, transfer or lease and, if a supplemental indenture is required in connection with such transaction, such supplemental indenture comply with this Article and that all conditions precedent herein provided for relating to such transaction have been complied with.

 

The restrictions in this Section 9.01 shall not apply to (i) the merger or consolidation of the Issuer with one of its affiliates, if the Board of Directors determines in good faith that the purpose of such transaction is principally to change the Issuer’s State of incorporation or convert the Issuer’s form of organization to another form, or (ii) the merger of the Issuer with or into a single direct or indirect wholly owned Subsidiary.

 

Section 9.02                             Successor Issuer Substituted.  Upon any consolidation of the Issuer with, or merger of the Issuer into, any other Person or any conveyance, transfer or lease of the properties and assets of the Issuer substantially as an entirety in accordance with Section 9.01, the successor Person formed by such consolidation or into which the Issuer is merged or to which such conveyance, transfer or lease is made shall succeed to, and be substituted for, and

 

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may exercise every right and power of, the Issuer under this Indenture with the same effect as if such successor Person had been named as the Issuer herein, and thereafter, except in the case of a lease, the predecessor Person shall be relieved of all obligations and covenants under this Indenture and the Securities.

 

In case of any such consolidation, merger, sale, lease or conveyance, such changes in phraseology and form (but not in substance) may be made in the Securities thereafter to be issued as may be appropriate.

 

ARTICLE 10
SATISFACTION AND DISCHARGE OF INDENTURE; DEFEASANCE; UNCLAIMED MONEYS

 

Section 10.01                      Satisfaction and Discharge of Indenture; Defeasance.  (a)  If at any time

 

(i)                                     the Issuer shall have paid or caused to be paid the principal of and interest on and any Additional Amounts with respect to all the Securities of any series Outstanding hereunder (other than Securities of such series which have been destroyed, lost or stolen and which have been replaced or paid as provided in Section 2.09) as and when the same shall have become due and payable, or

 

(ii)                                  the Issuer shall have delivered to the Trustee for cancellation all Securities of any series theretofore authenticated (other than any Securities of such series which shall have been destroyed, lost or stolen and which shall have been replaced or paid as provided in Section 2.09); or

 

(iii)                               in the case of any series of Securities the exact amount (including the currency of payment) of principal of and interest and Additional Amounts due on which on the dates referred to in clause (B) below can be determined at the time of making the deposit referred to in such clause,

 

(A)                               all the Securities of such series not theretofore delivered to the Trustee for cancellation shall have become due and payable, or are by their terms to become due and payable within one year or are to be called for redemption within one year in accordance with their terms under arrangements satisfactory to the Trustee for the giving of notice of redemption, and

 

(B)                               the Issuer shall have irrevocably deposited or caused to be deposited with the Trustee as trust funds the entire amount (i) in the case of any series of Securities the payments on which may only be made in Dollars, in Dollars (other than moneys repaid by the Trustee or any paying agent to the Issuer in accordance with Section 10.04) and/or U.S.

 

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Government Obligations maturing as to principal and interest in such amounts and at such times as will insure the availability of cash in such currency, or (ii) in the case of any series of Securities the payments on which may only be made in a Foreign Currency, in such Foreign Currency (other than moneys repaid by the Trustee or any paying agent to the Issuer in accordance with Section 10.04) and/or Foreign Government Obligations maturing as to principal and interest in such amounts and at such times as will insure the availability of cash in such currency, in each case sufficient to pay on any subsequent Interest Payment Date all interest due on such Interest Payment Date on the Securities of such series and to pay at maturity or upon redemption all Securities of such series (in each case other than any Securities of such series which shall have been destroyed, lost or stolen and which shall have been replaced or paid as provided in Section 2.09) not theretofore delivered to the Trustee for cancellation, including principal, interest and Additional Amounts due or to become due to such date of maturity, as the case may be,

 

and if, in a case described in Section 10.01(a)(iii)(B), the Issuer shall also pay or cause to be paid all other sums payable hereunder by the Issuer, including amounts due the Trustee pursuant to Section 6.06, with respect to Securities of such series, then this Indenture shall cease to be of further effect with respect to Securities of such series (except as to (1) rights of registration of transfer, conversion and exchange of Securities of such series and the Issuer’s right of optional redemption, (2) substitution of mutilated, defaced, destroyed, lost or stolen Securities, (3) rights of Holders of Securities to receive, solely from the trust fund described in Section 10.01(a)(iii)(B), payments of principal thereof and interest thereon, upon the original stated due dates therefor (but not upon acceleration) and remaining rights of the Holders to receive, solely from the trust fund described in Section 10.01(a)(iii)(B), sinking fund payments, if any, (4) the rights (including the Trustee’s rights under Section 10.05) and immunities of the Trustee hereunder and the Trustee’s obligations under Sections 10.02 and 10.04 and (5) the obligations of the Issuer under Section 3.02), and the Trustee, on demand of the Issuer accompanied by an Officer’s Certificate and an Opinion of Counsel which complies with Section 11.05 and at the cost and expense of the Issuer, shall execute proper instruments acknowledging such satisfaction of and discharging this Indenture with respect to such series.  The Issuer agrees to reimburse the Trustee for any costs or expenses thereafter reasonably and properly incurred and to compensate the Trustee for any services thereafter reasonably and properly rendered by the Trustee in connection with this Indenture or the Securities of such series.

 

(b)                                 The following subsection shall apply to the Securities of each series unless specifically otherwise provided in a Board Resolution, Officer’s Certificate or indenture supplemental hereto pursuant to Section 2.03.  In addition to the right to discharge of the Indenture pursuant to subsection (a) above, the Issuer, at its option and at any time, by written notice by an officer delivered to the Trustee, may elect to have all of its obligations

 

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with respect to all Outstanding Securities of a series discharged (“Legal Defeasance”), such discharge to be effective on the date that the conditions set forth in clauses (i) through (iv) and (vi) of Section 10.01(d) are satisfied, and thereafter the Issuer shall be deemed to have paid and discharged the entire Debt on all the Securities of such series, and satisfied all its other obligations under such Securities and this Indenture insofar as such Securities are concerned and this Indenture shall cease to be of further effect with respect to Securities of such series (except as to (1) rights of registration of transfer, conversion and exchange of Securities of such series, (2) substitution of apparently mutilated, defaced, destroyed, lost or stolen Securities, (3) rights of Holders of Securities to receive, solely from the trust fund described in Section 10.01(d)(i), payments of principal thereof, interest thereon and any Additional Amounts, upon the original Stated Maturities therefor (but not upon acceleration) and remaining rights of the Holders to receive, solely from the trust fund described in Section 10.01(d)(i), sinking fund payments, if any, (4) the rights (including the Trustee’s rights under Section 10.05) and immunities of the Trustee hereunder and the Trustee’s obligations with respect to the Securities of such series under Sections 10.02 and 10.04 and (5) the obligations of the Issuer under Section 3.02).

 

(c)                                  The following subsection shall apply to the Securities of each series unless specifically otherwise provided in a Board Resolution, Officer’s Certificate or indenture supplemental hereto provided pursuant to Section 2.03.  In addition to the right to discharge of the Indenture pursuant to subsection (a) and to Legal Defeasance pursuant to subsection (b), above, the Issuer, at its option and at any time, by written notice executed by an officer delivered to the Trustee, may elect to have its obligations under any covenant contained in this Indenture or in the Board Resolution or supplemental indenture relating to such series pursuant to Section 2.03 discharged with respect to all Outstanding Securities of a series, this Indenture and any indentures supplemental to this Indenture with respect to such series (“Covenant Defeasance”), such discharge to be effective on the date the conditions set forth in clauses (i) through (iii) and (v) through (vi) of Section 10.01(d) are satisfied, and such Securities shall thereafter be deemed to be not “Outstanding” for the purposes of any direction, waiver, consent or declaration of Securityholders (and any consequences thereof) in connection with such covenants, but shall continue to be “Outstanding” for all other purposes under this Indenture.  For this purpose, such Covenant Defeasance means that, with respect to the Outstanding Securities of a series, the Issuer may omit to comply with and shall have no liability in respect of any term, condition or limitation set forth in any such covenant, whether directly or indirectly, by reason of any reference elsewhere herein to any such covenant or by reason of reference in any such covenant to any other provision herein or in any other document and such omission to comply shall not constitute an Event of Default under Section 5.01(c) or otherwise, but except as specified in this

 

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Section 10.01(c), the remainder of the Issuer’s obligations under the Securities of such series, this Indenture, and any indentures supplemental to this Indenture with respect to such series shall be unaffected thereby.

 

(d)                                 The following shall be the conditions to the application of Legal Defeasance (to the extent set forth in subsection (b)), or Covenant Defeasance (to the extent set forth in subsection (c)) to the Securities of the applicable series:

 

(i)                                     the Issuer irrevocably deposits or causes to be deposited in trust with the Trustee or, at the option of the Trustee, with a trustee satisfactory to the Trustee and the Company under the terms of an irrevocable trust agreement in form and substance satisfactory to the Trustee, (i) in the case of any series of Securities the payments on which may only be made in Dollars, Dollars (other than moneys repaid by the Trustee or any paying agent to the Issuer in accordance with Section 10.04) and/or U.S. Government Obligations maturing as to principal and interest in such amounts and at such times as will insure the availability of cash in such currency, or (ii) in the case of any series of Securities the payments on which may only be made in a Foreign Currency, such Foreign Currency (other than moneys repaid by the Trustee or any paying agent to the Issuer in accordance with Section 10.04) and/or Foreign Government Obligations maturing as to principal and interest in such amounts and at such times as will insure the availability of cash in such currency, in each case sufficient to pay on any subsequent Interest Payment Date all interest due on such Interest Payment Date on the Securities of such series and to pay at maturity or upon redemption all Securities of such series (in each case other than any Securities of such series which shall have been destroyed, lost or stolen and which shall have been replaced or paid as provided in Section 2.09) not theretofore delivered to the Trustee for cancellation, including principal, interest and Additional Amounts due or to become due to such date of maturity, as the case may be;

 

(ii)                                  the Issuer delivers to the Trustee an Officer’s Certificate stating that all conditions precedent specified herein relating to Legal Defeasance or Covenant Defeasance, as the case may be, have been complied with, and an Opinion of Counsel to the same effect;

 

(iii)                               no Event of Default under subsection (a), (b), (d) or (e) of Section 5.01 shall have occurred and be continuing, and no event which with notice or lapse of time or both would become such an Event of Default shall have occurred and be continuing, on the date of such deposit;

 

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(iv)                              in the event of an election for Legal Defeasance under subsection (b), the Issuer shall have delivered to the Trustee an Opinion of Counsel stating that (A) the Issuer has received from, or there has been published by, the Internal Revenue Service a ruling or (B) since the date of this instrument, there has been a change in the applicable Federal income tax law, in either case (A) or (B) to the effect that, and based thereon such opinion shall confirm that, the Holders of such Securities will not recognize gain or loss for Federal income tax purposes as a result of the deposit, defeasance and discharge to be effected with respect to such Securities and will be subject to Federal income tax on the same amounts, in the same manner and at the same times as would be the case if such deposit, defeasance and discharge were not to occur;

 

(v)                                 in the event of an election for Covenant Defeasance under subsection (c), the Issuer shall have delivered to the Trustee an Opinion of Counsel to the effect that the Holders of such Securities will not recognize gain or loss for Federal income tax purposes as a result of the deposit and Covenant Defeasance to be effected with respect to such Securities and will be subject to Federal income tax on the same amount, in the same manner and at the same times as would be the case if such deposit and Covenant Defeasance were not to occur; and

 

(vi)                              notwithstanding any other provisions of this subsection (d), such defeasance shall be effected in compliance with any additional or substitute terms, conditions or limitations that may be imposed on the Issuer pursuant to Section 2.03.

 

After such irrevocable deposit made pursuant to this Section 10.01(d) and satisfaction of the other applicable conditions set forth in this subsection (d), the Trustee upon request shall execute proper instruments acknowledging the discharge of the Issuer’s obligations pursuant to this Section 10.01.

 

Section 10.02                      Application by Trustee of Funds Deposited for Payment of Securities.  Subject to Section 10.04, all moneys deposited with the Trustee (or other trustee) pursuant to Section 10.01 shall be held in trust and applied by it to the payment, either directly or through any paying agent (including the Issuer acting as its own paying agent), to the Holders of the particular Securities of such series for the payment or redemption of which such moneys have been deposited with the Trustee, of all sums due and to become due thereon for principal and interest; but such money need not be segregated from other funds except to the extent required by law.

 

Section 10.03                      Repayment of Moneys Held by Paying Agent.  In connection with the satisfaction and discharge of this Indenture with respect to Securities of any series, all moneys then held by any paying agent under the provisions of this Indenture with respect to such series of Securities shall, upon demand of the Issuer, be repaid to it or paid to the Trustee and

 

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thereupon such paying agent shall be released from all further liability with respect to such moneys.

 

Section 10.04                      Return of Moneys Held by Trustee and Paying Agent Unclaimed for Two Years.  Any moneys deposited with or paid to the Trustee or any paying agent for the payment of the principal of, interest on or additional amounts in respect of any Security of any series and not applied but remaining unclaimed for two years after the date upon which such principal, interest or additional amount shall have become due and payable, shall be repaid to the Issuer by the Trustee for such series or such paying agent, and the Holder of the Securities of such series shall thereafter look only to the Issuer for any payment which such Holder may be entitled to collect, and all liability of the Trustee or any paying agent with respect to such moneys shall thereupon cease.

 

Section 10.05                      Indemnity for U.S. Government Obligations and Foreign Government Obligations.  The Issuer shall pay and indemnify the Trustee against any tax, fee or other charge imposed on or assessed against the U.S. Government Obligations or Foreign Government Obligations deposited pursuant to Section 10.01 or the principal or interest received in respect of such obligations.

 

ARTICLE 11
MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS

 

Section 11.01                      No Recourse.  No recourse under or upon any obligation, covenant or agreement of this Indenture, or of any Security, or for any claim based thereon or otherwise in respect thereof, shall be had against any incorporator, stockholder, officer or director, past, present or future as such, of the Issuer or of any predecessor or successor corporation, either directly or through the Issuer or any such predecessor or successor corporation, whether by virtue of any constitution, statute or rule of law, or by the enforcement of any assessment or penalty or otherwise; it being expressly understood that this Indenture and the obligations issued hereunder are solely corporate obligations, and that no such personal liability whatever shall attach to, or is or shall be incurred by, the incorporators, stockholders, officers or directors as such, of the Issuer or of any predecessor or successor corporation, or any of them, because of the creation of the indebtedness hereby authorized, or under or by reason of the obligations, covenants or agreements contained in this Indenture or in any of the Securities or implied therefrom; and that any and all such personal liability of every name and nature, either at common law or in equity or by constitution or statute, of, and any and all such rights and claims against, every such incorporator, stockholder, officer or director as such, because of the creation of the indebtedness hereby authorized, or under or by reason of the obligations, covenants or agreements contained in this Indenture or in any of the Securities or implied therefrom, are hereby expressly waived and released as a condition of, and as a consideration for, the execution of this Indenture and the issuance of such Securities.

 

Section 11.02                      Provisions of Indenture for the Sole Benefit of Parties and Holders of Securities.  Nothing in this Indenture or in the Securities, expressed or implied, shall give or be construed to give to any person, firm or corporation, other than the parties hereto and their successors and the Holders of the Securities any legal or equitable right, remedy or claim under this Indenture or under any covenant or provision herein contained, all such covenants and

 

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provisions being for the sole benefit of the parties hereto and their successors and of the Holders of the Securities.

 

Section 11.03                      Successors and Assigns of Issuer Bound by Indenture.  All the covenants, stipulations, promises and agreements contained in this Indenture by or on behalf of the Issuer shall bind its successors and assigns, whether so expressed or not.

 

Section 11.04                      Notices and Demands on Issuer, Trustee and Holders of Securities.  Any notice or demand which by any provision of this Indenture is required or permitted to be given or served by the Trustee or by the Holders of Securities to or on the Issuer may be delivered, given or served by being deposited postage prepaid, first-class mail (except as otherwise specifically provided herein) addressed (until another address of the Issuer is filed by the Issuer with the Trustee) to Ophthotech Corporation, One Penn Plaza, 35th Floor, New York, NY 10119, Attn: Chief Financial Officer.  Any notice, direction, request or demand by the Issuer or any Holder of Securities to or upon the Trustee shall be deemed to have been sufficiently given or made, for all purposes, if given or made at             ,              , Attn:            .

 

Where this Indenture provides for notice to Holders of Securities, such notice shall be sufficiently given (unless otherwise herein expressly provided) if in writing and mailed, first-class postage prepaid, to each Holder entitled thereto, at his, her or its last address as it appears in the Security register.  In case, by reason of the suspension of or irregularities in regular mail service, it shall be impracticable to mail notice of any event to Holders of Securities when said notice is required to be given pursuant to any provision of this Indenture or of the Securities, then any manner of giving such notice as shall be satisfactory to the Trustee shall be deemed to be a sufficient giving of such notice.

 

In case, by reason of the suspension of or irregularities in regular mail service, it shall be impracticable to mail notice to the Issuer when such notice is required to be given pursuant to any provision of this Indenture, then any manner of giving such notice as shall be satisfactory to the Trustee shall be deemed to be a sufficient giving of such notice.

 

Where this Indenture provides for notice of any event to a Holder of a Global Security, such notice shall be sufficiently given if given to the Depositary for such Security (or its designee), pursuant to the Applicable Procedures of the Depositary, not later than the latest date, if any, and not earlier than the earliest date, if any, prescribed for the giving of such notice.

 

Neither the failure to give notice, nor any defect in any notice so given, to any particular Holder of a Security shall affect the sufficiency of such notice with respect to other Holders of Securities given as provided above.

 

Where this Indenture provides for notice in any manner, such notice may be waived in writing by the Person entitled to receive such notice either before or after the event, and such waiver shall be the equivalent of such notice.  Waivers of notice by Holders shall be filed with the Trustee, but such filing shall not be a condition precedent to the validity of any action taken in reliance upon such waiver.

 

Section 11.05                      Officer’s Certificates and Opinions of Counsel; Statements to Be Contained Therein.  Upon any application or demand by the Issuer to the Trustee to take any

 

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action under any of the provisions of this Indenture, the Issuer shall furnish to the Trustee an Officer’s Certificate stating that all conditions precedent provided for in this Indenture relating to the proposed action have been complied with and an Opinion of Counsel stating that in the opinion of such counsel all such conditions precedent have been complied with, except that in the case of any such application or demand as to which the furnishing of such documents is specifically required by any provision of this Indenture relating to such particular application or demand, no additional certificate or opinion need be furnished.

 

Each certificate or opinion provided for in this Indenture and delivered to the Trustee with respect to compliance with a condition or covenant provided for in this Indenture shall include (a) a statement that the person making such certificate or opinion has read such covenant or condition, (b) a brief statement as to the nature and scope of the examination or investigation upon which the statements or opinions contained in such certificate or opinion are based, (c) a statement that, in the opinion of such person, he or she has made such examination or investigation as is necessary to enable him or her to express an informed opinion as to whether or not such covenant or condition has been complied with and (d) a statement as to whether or not, in the opinion of such person, such condition or covenant has been complied with.

 

Any certificate, statement or opinion of an officer of the Issuer may be based, insofar as it relates to legal matters, upon a certificate or opinion of or representations by counsel, unless such officer knows that the certificate or opinion or representations with respect to the matters upon which his or her certificate, statement or opinion may be based as aforesaid are erroneous, or in the exercise of reasonable care should know that the same are erroneous.  Any certificate, statement or opinion of counsel may be based, insofar as it relates to factual matters, information with respect to which is in the possession of the Issuer, upon the certificate, statement or opinion of or representations by an officer or officers of the Issuer, unless such counsel knows that the certificate, statement or opinion or representations with respect to the matters upon which his or her certificate, statement or opinion may be based as aforesaid are erroneous, or in the exercise of reasonable care should know that the same are erroneous.

 

Any certificate, statement or opinion of an officer of the Issuer or of co